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06.16 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 83 ately after application (Table 2). Highest red color intensity at two weeks after treatment was with the backpack + Primo, sports feld line applicator, and sports feld line applica - tor + Primo. At four weeks after treatment, only bermudagrass painted with the back - pack + Primo had a color intensity rating of ≥ 2. The number of weeks to a rating of ≤ 2 was lower for the aerosol (3.8 weeks) than for other treatments (≥ 4.8 weeks). White out-of-bounds lines White paint applied with the sports feld line applicator, with or without Primo, had the lowest visual intensity rating immediately after application in Florida, and paint applied with the aerosol applicator had the highest (Table 3). At two and four weeks after treat - ment, white paint applied with the backpack applicator + Primo had higher visual intensity than all other treatments. The longest time to a color intensity rating of ≤ 2 occurred with the backpack + Primo (4.8 weeks), but the length of time was not statistically different from that of the sports feld line applicator + Primo (4.3 weeks). In Kansas, white paint applied with the aerosol or backpack + Primo had the highest visual color intensity immediately after appli - cation on Aug. 13, and these two treatments had the highest color ratings through four weeks after treatment (Sept. 10). The back - pack + Primo (4.8 weeks) and aerosol (4.5 weeks) required the longest period to reach an intensity rating of ≤ 2. Applicator selection, Primo and cost Aerosol paint has been the standard for marking water hazard and out-of-bounds lines on golf courses. We hypothesized that applying paint in bulk with backpack or sports feld line applicators and combining the paint solution with Primo would produce lines that would persist longer than those cre - ated with an aerosol applicator. Sports turf managers have used Primo with bulk paint applicators to extend persistence of white feld lines for some time (2). However, with Applicators used for paint application: top: aerosol; center: backpack; and bottom: sports feld line applica- tor. Top and bottom photos by Jack Fry; center photo by Jason Kruse