Golf Course Management

JUL 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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07.18 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 65 ents an opportunity for the management of ground pearls. e front legs of adult females are modi - fied into claws. Adults use these claws to crawl around in the soil and near the soil surface for about a week, after which they secrete a mass of loose, waxy filaments (called an ovisac) in the soil at a depth of 1 to 4 inches (2.5-10 cm) (Figure 3). Each female deposits about 100 eggs in the ovisacs over a two-week period (2). Eggs hatch in nine to 15 days, but because adult females emerge and eggs are deposited over a long period of time, egg hatch may con - tinue until the end of August. Hatchlings and nymphs e hatchlings (called crawlers) disperse from the ovisacs, find, settle and feed on the grass roots. e crawlers secrete their own cysts, and develop through the nymphal stage in the cysts from spring through fall. e nymphs overwinter, and then emerge as adults in spring. Under unfavorable environmental and host conditions, nymphs may take more than a year to complete development. Searching for chemical management solutions Although it's true that insecticide solutions cannot penetrate cysts, that does not mean ground pearls are completely invulnerable. Adult females and crawlers are not covered with cysts or wax, which means their bod - ies can come into direct contact with insec- ticides, and these stages of the insect can be controlled. Adult females and crawlers should, therefore, be the main targets for insecticide treatment. No insecticide is currently registered for ground pearl management on golf turf. In - secticides registered for ground pearl control on home lawns usually contain bifenthrin (for example, Amdro Quick Kill Lawn Insect Killer Granules, Central Gardens and Pets; Bonide Eight Insect Control Flower & Veg - etable Above & Below Soil Insect Granules), carbaryl (for example, GardenTech Sevin In - sect Killer Lawn Granules), or a combination of chlorantraniliprole and bifenthrin (for ex - ample, Roundup for Lawns Bug Destroyer, Scotts Co.). It is necessary to always follow pesticide label instructions and restrictions. e fact that some products are registered for the management of certain pests does not mean that the active ingredients of these prod - 3 months after treatment Figure 4. A study was conducted in 2008 in South Carolina to compare the efficacy of insecticides applied alone or mixed with the wetting agent Revolution to control ground pearl. No insecticides were effective in significantly reducing the number of ground pearls at three months after treatment. 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Without Revolution With Revolution Average numbers of live cysts/50 cubic inches Insecticides Untreated Arena Meridian Merit Dylox Malathion Orthene Sevin Talstar

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