Golf Course Management

JUL 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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66 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 07.18 ucts are indeed effective against those pests. Research is ongoing in the southern U.S. to identify insecticides that may be effective against ground pearls. My early research I conducted (but did not publish) a study in 2008 to evaluate the efficacy of several turf insecticides: Arena 50WDG (clothianidin, Nufarm), Meridian 25 WG (thiamethoxam, Syngenta), Merit 2F (imidacloprid, Bayer), Dylox 80 T&O (trichlorfon, Bayer), Mala - thion 50 EC (malathion, Southern Ag), Orth- ene TT&O 97 (acephate, Amvac), Sevin SL (carbaryl, Bayer), and Talstar One (bifenthrin, FMC Corp.). e insecticides were sprayed at the highest label rates, at an application vol - ume of 85 gallons per acre (795 liters/hectare), and mixed with or without Revolution (modi - fied alkylated polyol, Aquatrols) — a wet- ting agent to reduce water repellency of dry, sandy soil in order to improve penetration of insecticide solution. Untreated plots were also prepared for comparison. e plots (5 feet × 5 feet; 1.5 meters × 1.5 meters) were laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates per treatment. We applied the insecticides in July 2008 to target adult females and crawlers. We counted the numbers of live adult females and cysts in soil collected with a cup-cutter to a depth of about 4 inches (about 50 cubic inches or 820 cubic cm) at three months and nine months after the application. If our hypotheses — in - secticides could reduce ground pearl abun- dance, and wetting agents could improve control efficacy — were correct, we would see fewer ground pearls in insecticide-treated plots, especially those mixed with Revolution. Results Alas! Our hypotheses were refuted. No in - secticide (with or without Revolution) was ef- fective in reducing the numbers of live ground pearl cysts when compared to the untreated check at three months after treatment (Oc - tober 2008) (Figure 4). At nine months after treatment (April 2009), however, plots treated with Arena without Revolution and Meridian with Revolution had fewer live ground pearl cysts than the untreated plots (Figure 5). Ten years after the experiment, I still cannot ex - plain why Arena was more effective without Revolution and Meridian was more effective 9 months after treatment Figure 5. In the 2008 study, plots treated with Arena without Revolution and Meridian with Revolution (marked with asterisks) had fewer live ground pearl cysts than untreated plots at nine months after treatment. 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Without Revolution With Revolution Average numbers of live cysts/50 cubic inches Insecticides Untreated Arena Meridian Merit Dylox Malathion Orthene Sevin Talstar * *

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