Golf Course Management

JUL 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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64 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 07.18 in late April through August (2). I have found adult females active from April through July in South Carolina, and their emergence time changes from year to year, depending on soil moisture and temperature. It is unclear at this point what temperature and what level of soil moisture would trigger consistent emergence of adult females from the cysts. Adult females Adult females have legs and are pink (E. laingi) or orange (D. meridionalis), fat, and glob-like. One of the most striking differences between the cysts and the adults is the absence of waxy covering in adult females. is pres - verse environmental conditions (too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, etc.), natural enemies and insecticides. Insecticides are often mixed in water, which cannot penetrate the waxy cysts to kill the nymphs inside. Even granu - lar insecticides require water to dissolve and activate. As a result, ground pearls are invul - nerable to insecticide treatment when they are protected inside the cysts. Ground pearls produce one generation per year and overwinter as nymphs in cysts at - tached to roots (2). ey become adults in late spring to mid-summer. Males are not known to occur in ground pearls that attack turfgrass. Adult females typically emerge from the cysts Figure 3. Adult females produce waxy ovisacs (where they deposit about 100 eggs) from April through August. Ovisacs (red circle on the right) and cysts (blue circle on the left) can be detected in the soil profile. Photo by JC Chong

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