Golf Course Management

JUN 2018

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72 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 06.18 The RESEARCH SAYS • The differences in morphology and per- formance between off-type grasses and ultradwarf bermudagrass greens disturb the aesthetics and surface uniformity of ultradwarf putting greens. • Internode length, leaf length and leaf length:width ratio of 52 samples of off- type desirable grasses were measured to group the grasses by their morphology. • Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to compare the genetic makeup of the grasses, and the results were similar to previous genetic research, which also failed to readily distinguish among ultradwarf cultivars and most off-type grasses. • Two different greenhouse experiments tested the responses of the grasses to nitrogen or trinexapac-ethyl. The experi- ments need to be replicated in the field to validate the results. grasses in order to minimize any competitive growth advantage an off-type grass may pos - sess over a desirable cultivar. Future research will explore the manage - ment of putting greens with off-type infesta- tions in field settings. One potential topic of interest is the use of growing degree-day mod - els to schedule PGR applications. is ap- proach has the potential to aid in balancing the amount of growth suppression between the ultradwarf cultivar and the off-type grass. In addition to application timings, other PGR active ingredients such as prohexadione-Ca should also be evaluated for their effective - ness in balancing growth suppression between desirable cultivars of ultradwarf bermuda- grass and off-type grasses. While there are still many "known unknowns" regarding off-type grasses in ultradwarf bermudagrass putting greens, we hope that more research can begin to change these to "known knowns." Funding e University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Memphis Area GCSA and the United States Golf Association provided funding for this project. Acknowledgments e authors would like to thank Qi Sun, Jeff Dunne, Sarah Boggess, Anne Hatmaker, Monil Mehta, Laura Poplawski, Sujata Agar - wal, Javier Vargas, Tyler Campbell, Jimmy Greenway, Greg Breeden, Daniel Farnsworth, Trevor Mills, Mitchell Riffey, Kelly Arn - holt, Jason Burris, Amanda Webb, Rebecca Grantham, Gerald Henry, Brian Schwartz, Robert Trigiano, Margaret Staton, Phil Wadl, and John Sorochan for assistance with this project. Mention of trade names or commer - cial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorse - ment. Literature cited 1. Elshire, R.J., J.C. Glaubitz, Q. Sun, J.A. Poland, K. Kawamoto, E.S. Buckler and S.E. Mitchell. 2011. A robust, simple genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach for high diversity species. PLOS One 6:E19379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019379 2. Fei, S. 2008. Recent progresses on turfgrass molecular genetics and biotechnology. Horticulturae 783:247-260. 3. Fiedler, J.D., C. Lanzatella, M. Okada, J. Jen - kins, J. Schmutz and C.M. Tobias. 2012. High density single nucleotide polymorphism linkage maps of lowland switchgrass using genotyping- by-sequencing. The Plant Genome 8 (2). doi: 10.3835/plantgenome2014.10.0065 4. Magni, S., M. Gaetani, L. Caturegli, C. Leto, T. Tuttolomodo, S. La Bella, G. Virga, N. Ntoulas and M. Volterrani. 2014. Phenotypic traits and establishment speed of 44 turf bermudagrass accessions. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Sec - tion B–Soil and Plant Science 64:722-733. doi: 10.1080/09064710.2014.955524 5. Poland, J.A., P.J. Brown, M.E. Sorrells and J.L. Jannink. 2012. Development of high-density genetic maps for barley and wheat using a novel two enzyme genotyping-by sequencing approach. PLOS One 7:E32253. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032253 6. Reasor, E.H., J.T. Brosnan, R.N. Trigiano, J.E. Elsner, G.M. Henry and B.M. Schwartz. 2016. The genetic and phenotypic variability of interspecific hybrid bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) used on golf course putting greens. Planta 244:761-773. doi 10.1007/ s00425-016-2571-8 7. Roche, M.B. and D.S. Loch. 2005. Morphologi - cal and development comparisons of seven greens quality hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy]. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 10:627-634. 8. Sahu, P.P., G. Pandey, N. Sharma, S. Puranik, M. Muthamilarason and M. Prasad. 2013. Epigenetic mechanisms of plant stress responses and adapta - tion. Plant Cell Reports 32:1151-1159. doi: 10.1007/ s00299-013-1462-x 9. Williams, S. 2015. A state of flux: Experts agree on the benefits of ultradwarf bermudagrasses, but are also paying heed to emerging challenges facing those who manage these warm-season turfgrasses. Golf Course Management. 83(8):72-80. Eric Reasor ( is an assistant professor in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, and Jim Brosnan is an associate professor in the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

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