Golf Course Management

MAY 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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05.18 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 65 The RESEARCH SAYS • Pollinators are valuable natural resources that are responsible for much of the world's food production, but their numbers are declining. • The causes of pollinator decline are numerous, and public opinion often places the blame on insecticides. • By following best management prac- tices for use of insecticides and other turf care products, turf managers can reduce the risk of harm to pollinators. • Applying pesticides according to label instructions and in accordance with EPA guidelines and university recommenda- tions will help protect pollinators and the environment. Conclusions Pesticides — including fungicides, herbi- cides, insecticides and plant growth regulators — are valuable tools that allow the turfgrass industry to provide the high-quality turf that the public demands. In order to preserve and protect these valuable tools, the turfgrass in - dustry must use them correctly — in accor- dance with pesticide labels, EPA guidelines and university recommendations. Public per - ception that pesticides are the primary factor responsible for pollinator decline has already resulted in the phaseout of certain insecticides for turfgrass use. It is imperative that the turf - grass industry employ pesticide stewardship and best management practices to protect and preserve pollinators. Acknowledgments I extend my appreciation to Adam Dale, University of Florida; David Held, Auburn University; Johnathan Larson, University of Nebraska; Ben McGraw, Penn State Univer - sity; Doug Richmond, Purdue University; and Kyle Wickings, Cornell University for their contributions to and authorship of the manu - script (Larson et al. 2017) on which this article is based. I also thank all the attendees of the 2016 Summit for Protecting Pollinators, She - boygan, Wis. Literature cited 1. Bayer Environmental Science. 2012. Canadian Merit label. Merit%20Solupak%202012.pdf 2. Gels, J.A., D.W. Held and D.A. Potter. 2002. Hazards of insecticides to bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foraging on white clover in turf. Journal of Economic Entomology 95:722-728. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-95.4.722 3. Goulson, D., E. Nicholls, C. Botias, E.L. Rotheray. 2015. Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides and lack of flowers. Science 347:1255957. doi:10.1126/science.1255957 4. Held, D.W. and D.A. Potter. 2012. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs. Annual Review of Entomology 57:329-354. 5. Klein, A.M., B.E. Vassiere, J.H. Cane, I. Steffan- Dewenter, S.A. Cunningham, C. Kremen and T. Tscharntke. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274:303- 313. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006/3721. 6. Kunkel, B.A., D.W. Held and D.A. Potter. 2001. Lethal and sublethal effects of bendiocarb, halofenozide and imidacloprid on Harpalus pennsylvanicus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) following different modes of exposure in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology 94:60- 67. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-94.1.60 7. Larson, J.L., A.J. Keisheimer and D.A. Potter. 2014. Pollinator assemblages on dandelions and white clo - ver on urban and suburban lawns. Journal of Insect Conservation 18(5):863-873. s10841-014-9694-9 8. Larson, J.L., C.T. Redmond and D.A. Potter. 2015. Mowing mitigates bioactivity of neonicotinoid insecti - cides in nectar of flowering lawn weeds and turfgrass guttation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34:127-132. doi:10.1002/etc.2768 9. Milesi, C., C.D. Elvidge, J.B. Dietz, B.T. Tuttle, R.R. Nemani and S.W. Running. 2005. Mapping and modeling of biogeochemical cycling of turf grasses in the United States. Environmental Management 36: 426-438. 10. Mohney, G. 2013. More than 25,000 bees die in Oregon. ( 2013/06/more-than-25000-bees-die-in-oregon/). Accessed April 2, 2018. 11. Stark, J.D., P.C. Jepson and D.F. Mayer. 1995. Limi - tations to use of topical toxicity data for predictions of pesticide side effects in the field. Journal of Eco - nomic Entomology 88:1081-1088. jee/88.5.1081 Additional reading For additional information regarding BMPs for protecting pollinators in turf, view one or all of the following Extension publications: • • turf.pdf • vation-of-Native-and-Domestic-Pol linators-in-Managed-Turfgrass-Land scapes-P1812.aspx R. Chris Williamson ( is a profes- sor and Extension specialist at the University of Wisconsin- Madison.

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