Golf Course Management

DEC 2012

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research Potential phytotoxicity DMI fungicides often exhibit plant-growth- V v v The research says £ Preventive fungicide applica- tions may be more effective than curative applications for managing fairy ring on putting greens. £ Plots treated with one or two applications of Bayleton, Triton or tebuconazole in the spring had significantly less fairy ring occur- rence than untreated plots. This result concurs with other research that also demonstrates control with two low- rate applications of Eagle, Tourney or Trinity. £ The first preventive applica- tion should be made in spring when the five-day average soil temperature at a 2-inch depth reaches a 55 F-60 F threshold. £ Tank-mixing a surfactant with a preventive spring fungicide applica- tion did not increase fairy ring control; applying surfactants aimed at local- ized dry spot on a regular schedule, but not tank-mixed with a preventive fairy ring application, may be most effective. £ Watering-in the preventive DMI fungicide immediately rather than 10 hours after application did not affect the effectiveness of fairy ring control. regulating effects and may cause phytotoxicity in some turfgrasses, particularly when applied dur- ing high temperatures. Applying DMI fungicides in the spring, watering them in, and using lower rates should diminish phytotoxicity. In a high- temperature period in late May 2008 (maximum air temperatures >90 F [>32 C]), we observed slight phytotoxicity associated with preventive Bayleton applications that affected the color and quality of creeping bentgrass. This effect occurred in only one of the three years of the study and was short-lived, but should still be considered. Future research should also assess the impact of preven- tive DMI applications on spring green-up of ber- mudagrass, and the transition from a cool-season turf species used during the winter months to a warm-season turf species. Future research Results from this and an earlier study (6) indicate that preventive low-rate applications of the DMI fungicides triadimefon, triticonazole, tebuconazole, metconazole or myclobutanil are an effective tool in the suppression of fairy ring on putting greens caused by either Bovista dermo- xantha or Vascellum curtisii. These results are spe- cific to sand-based putting greens and have not yet been evaluated for tees, fairways or other areas. For this reason, effectiveness may vary for fairy ring suppression caused by another species or for another soil type. There is a high level of specificity to the obser- vations made in this study, which centers on the causal agent and ecosystem and not a broadly defined plant symptom. Future research regard- ing fairy ring control strategies should also use recently outlined methods (5) to identify the pathogen being investigated. This would allow for direct comparison with this and other fairy ring management research, and facilitate control rec- ommendations that target the specific pathogen. Funding This research was supported by grants from Bayer Environ- mental Science, Carolinas Association of Golf Course Superin- tendents, the Center for Turfgrass Environmental Research and Education at North Carolina State University and the Environ- mental Institute for Golf. Acknowledgments We thank E. Rosebrough and A. Rosebrough (North Caro- lina State University) for valuable technical assistance. This article is based on an earlier article by the same authors that 82 GCM December 2012 appeared in the July 2012 issue of the journal Plant Disease: Evaluation of preventive fungicide applications for fairy ring con- trol in golf putting greens and in vitro sensitivity of fairy ring spe- cies to fungicides. Plant Disease 96(7):1001-1007(http://dx.doi. org/10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0779-RE). Literature cited 1. Couch, H.B. 1995. Diseases of Turfgrasses. Krieger Publish- ing, Malabar, Fla. 2. Fidanza, M.A. 2007. Characterization of soil properties associated with type-I fairy ring symptoms in turfgrass. Bio- logia 62:533-536. 3. Fidanza, M.A., and A. Bagwell. 2005. Evaluation of fungi- cides and a soil surfactant for curative type-II fairy ring con- trol in creeping bentgrass, 2004. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 60:1. 4. Martin, B. 1998. Evaluation of Heritage and Prostar for fairy ring suppression in creeping bentgrass, 1997. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 53:449. 5. Miller, G.L., L.F. Grand and L.P. Tredway. 2011. Identification and distribution of fungi associated with fairy rings on golf putting greens. Plant Disease 95:1131-1138. 6. Miller, G.L., M.D. Soika and L.P. Tredway. 2009. Evaluation of fungicides for preventive control of fairy ring caused by Lycoperdon pusillum on bermudagrass and creeping bent- grass putting greens, 2008. Plant Disease Management Reports 3:T058. 7. Shantz, H.L., and R.L. Piemesel. 1917. Fungus fairy rings in eastern Colorado and their effect on vegetation. Journal of Agricultural Research 11:191-245. 8. Smith, J.D. 1957. Fungi and turf diseases. 7: Fairy rings. Journal of the Sports Turf Research Institute 33:324-352. 9. Tredway, L.P., E.L. Butler and M.D. Soika.2007. Evaluation of spring fungicide applications for preventative control of fairy ring, 2006. Plant Disease Management Reports 1:T027. GCM Gerald (Lee) Miller (turfpath@missouri.edu) was a graduate student and Lane P. Tredway was an associate professor in the department of plant pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C., at the time this research took place. Michael D. Soika is a laboratory research specialist in the department of plant pathology, North Carolina State University.

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