Golf Course Management

APR 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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04.18 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 83 CUTTING EDGE Teresa Carson Midwestern billbugs: Seasonal biology and DNA-based life- stage association In North America, regional variation in billbug species composition and seasonal biology impede the development and implementation of integrated pest management programs. Researchers at Purdue University described the species composition of billbugs associated with turfgrass in the Midwestern U.S. using intensive adult and larval survey techniques. They consistently trapped four species in both warm- and cool-season grasses: the hunting billbug (S eno orus venatus), bluegrass billbug (S. parvulus), lesser billbug (S. minimus) and unequal billbug (S. inaequalis). Their efforts allowed them to describe the seasonal biology of the hunting billbug (S. venatus) and develop a molecular technique to identify the morphologically indistinguishable larvae to the species level. Their findings revealed two overwintered life stages (larva and adult) for the hunting billbug and confirmed the utility of genetic markers to associate billbug life stages. This tool will be useful for understanding larval population dynamics across different climatic regions of North America. Two overwintering life stages of hunting billbug resulted in two separate cohorts in the spring, each producing at least one subsequent generation of larvae and adults during the growing season and second-generation larvae. Degree-day models developed from these data predicted two narrow windows in which both adults and larvae could potentially be controlled with a single application of insecticides, targeting either the overwintered or first generation of this insect. One well-timed insecticide application may help managers reduce populations of both damaging life stages and eliminate the need for multiple insecticide applications targeting this insect. — Alexandra Duffy (; Gareth Powell; Jennifer Zaspel, Ph.D.; and Douglas Richmond, Ph.D., Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind. An article on this research was published in Journal of Economic Entomology 111(1):304- 313 (http// . Organic and inorganic compounds in crumb rubber mulch Shredded tire material, or crumb rubber, can be used for multiple purposes, including construction of golf cart paths and athletic fields. However, this material may contain compounds that can be harmful to humans and the environment. Researchers at Yale University tested 15 samples of crumb rub - ber: nine of the samples were material sold for home use, and six were used for artificial turf on athletic fields. Samples were cleaned and ground and then treated with organic solvent (dichloromethane), strong acid or simulated acid rain, or were allowed to de-gas passively. Ninety-two compounds were found in mate - rial treated with organic solvents. Of the 92 compounds, nine were carcinogens, 20 were irritants (including respiratory irritants that may complicate asthma), and half have not yet been tested for their effects on human health. Samples that underwent strong acid extraction were found to have lead, cadmium and relatively large amounts of zinc. Other metals may be present but were unmeasured. Simulated acid rain extracted only zinc in sig - nificant quantities. In samples that were al- lowed to de-gas passively, 11 compounds were detected. The authors of the study suggest avoiding exposure to crumb rubber because of its toxicity. — Gaboury Benoit, Ph.D. (gabouryb@ and Sara Demars, Yale School of For - estry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, Conn. An article on this research was published in Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2018, 229:64. ( . Teresa Carson ( is GCM's science editor.

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