Golf Course Management

NOV 2012

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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THE INSIDER: turf Teresa Carson Experimental plots at the University of Minnesota Turf Research, Out- reach and Education Center in St. Paul, Minn., were used to test the effects of two types of core cultiva- tion on runoff into surface waters. Photo by Pamela Rice, ARS Cleaner runoff from fairways In addition, environmental concentrations of NEWS & notes The second edition of Hand- book of Turfgrass Insects, edited by Rick L. Brandenburg and Callie P. Freeman, is now available from APS Press. This new edition provides practical information covering all aspects of turfgrass insect management and all major insect pests and mites of warm- and cool-season turfgrasses in the United States. The book is heavily illustrated with color photos of various insects and the turf damage they cause as well as illustra- tions of insect life stages in their actual size, life-cycle charts and distribution maps. Sections written by experts on the individual pests provide essential information on the key turfgrass pests that can damage golf courses and the turfgrasses found in commercial, residential and sports settings. The new edition includes coverage of additional insects and effective new management strategies. The book is available at www.apsnet.org or by calling 800-328-7560. vide the best possible playing conditions while protecting the environment, USDA-ARS chem- ist Pamela Rice, Ph.D., and University of Min- nesota turfgrass professor Brian Horgan, Ph.D., carried out a series of studies at the university to measure levels of commonly used pesticides and chemicals from fertilizers in runoff from creep- ing bentgrass turf managed as a fairway and to determine how those levels could be reduced. In an initial experiment, chlorpyrifos, fluto- lanil, mecoprop-p, 2,4-D and dicamba were ap- plied to experimental plots, and simulated rain events were applied within 33 hours of the pesti- cide applications. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any of the runoff samples. The other pesticide levels in the runoff from the simulated rain ranged from less than 1 to 23 percent of the total applied. Horgan and Rice also compared the effects Presented in partnership with Barenbrug 38 GCM November 2012 of hollow-tine and solid-tine core cultivation on runoff from the same pesticides and on runoff from fertilizer applications. For the pesticide study, plots received either cultivation type and were treated with pesticides about 62 days later. Within 39 hours of pesticide application, plots received simulated rain, and runoff was col- lected. The volume of runoff from plots receiv- ing hollow-tine cultivation was 10 percent lower than the volume from plots receiving solid-tine cultivation; pesticide transport was 15 to 24 per- cent less. After a second cultivation and runoff experiment, hollow-tine cultivation produced 55 percent less runoff volume and 35 to 57 percent less pesticide transport. pesticides in surface water receiving runoff from solid-tine-cultivated turf were found at levels that would be harmful to nine aquatic organisms. The runoff from turf receiving hollow-tine cul- tivation would not be harmful to most of these. The fertilizer study measured runoff volume and loss of soluble phosphorus, ammonium nitro- gen and nitrate nitrogen from runoff under both cultivation types. Nutrient concentrations in run- off from hollow-tine cultivation were up to 77 per- cent lower less than two days after cultivation and 27 percent lower 63 days after cultivation. For both cultivation types, environmental concentrations of nitrogen were not considered high enough to increase algae growth, and nitrate levels would not adversely affect human health. However, phosphorus levels generally were high enough to cause eutrophication (excessive plant growth). The only acceptable phosphorus levels were in runoff that occurred two days after hol- low-tine cultivation. As a result of their studies, Horgan and Rice are encouraging superintendents to use hollow- tine cultivation to reduce pesticide and fertilizer levels in runoff to protect the health of both hu- mans and the environment. The information in this article was previously published in an article in the October 2012 issue of Agricultural Research. This research was funded in part by USGA. GCM Teresa Carson (tcarson@gcsaa.org) is GCM's science editor. As conscientious stewards of the environment, golf course superintendents are keenly aware of the importance of monitoring and controlling runoff from the golf course and make every effort to avoid polluting adjacent water bodies and groundwater. To assist superintendents in their quest to pro-

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