Golf Course Management

OCT 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 80 of 101

10.17 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 77 CUTTING EDGE Teresa Carson Kurapia performance in the low desert of Arizona Kurapia (Lippia nodiflora), a non-invasive, sterile ground cover, was introduced from Japan to the United States and tested for salin - ity and drought tolerance in California. Kura- pia tolerates a pH of 4 to 9, temperatures of 13 F to 120 F (11 C to 49 C) and salinity up to EC 7 decisiemens/meter. This study evaluated the potential for its use as a replacement for turfgrass in non-play areas of golf courses in the low desert of Arizona. We also tested her - bicides to determine whether they could safely be used to maintain weed-free kurapia. Pre - liminary results from growing kurapia under deficit irrigation and evaluating its tolerance to pre- and post-emergence herbicides in the low desert of Arizona demonstrated a 90% sur - vival rate of the planted kurapia plugs; lateral plant growth as great as 2 feet (61 cm) in three months; long-season flowering from May to October that attracted many pollinators; and safe potential use of three pre-emergence and five post-emergence herbicides. Distribution uniformity of irrigation water appeared to be important for uniform growth rate of kura - pia. Additional studies are needed to generate more local information to better understand kurapia's water and nutritional needs, as well as its ability to compete against weeds and in - sect pests. — Worku Burayu (worku@cals.arizona. edu), Maricopa County Cooperative Extension, Uni - versity of Arizona, Phoenix, and Kai Umeda, Univer- sity of Arizona This research project was funded in part by the USGA. Mineral composition of Kentucky bluegrass under effluent water irrigation Research was conducted on Kentucky bluegrass at eight Colorado golf courses irri - gated with three types of water: three courses in Denver after 10 years of effluent water ir - rigation; three courses in nearby cities after 10+ years of effluent water irrigation; and two courses receiving surface water for irrigation. Soil pH, EC, organic matter, calcium, magne- sium, potassium, sodium, boron and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of soil saturated paste were determined. Kentucky bluegrass shoots were sampled from 25 roughs and analyzed for mineral concentration (sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, boron, chlorine, sul - fur, phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc, cop- per and molybdenum). Ten years or more of effluent water irrigation increased sodium content of clippings 4.3 to 9.9 times, chloride content 1.5 to 1.3 times, and boron 1.3 to 3.5 times. In contrast, effluent irrigation reduced the potassium:sodium ratio by 74% to 90%. Mathematical analysis was conducted to iden - tify the relationships between mineral con- centration in clippings and turf quality, and found that sodium was the only element that strongly and negatively influenced turf qual - ity. There was a linear relationship between turf quality and sodium content in the clip - pings, and soil SAR at a depth of 0 to 20 cm was highly associated with Kentucky bluegrass shoot sodium content. — Yuhung Lin and Yaling Qian, Ph.D. (, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Editor's note: Earlier versions of t ese summaries were publis ed in t e 2016 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Meeting Abstracts, ASA, CSSA and SSSA, Madison, Wis. Teresa Carson is GCM 's science editor. Photo by Yaling Qian Photo by Worku Burayu

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