Golf Course Management

OCT 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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66 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 10.17 known histories of insect occurrence can be the most effective method of thwarting wide - spread damage. Two for one Consideration of the insect spectrum of a treatment is also important. Today's insec - ticides are typically active against more than one insect and can provide, at a minimum, a dual benefit within a designed program. Take, for example, Acelepryn insecticide (active ingredient chlorantraniliprole, Syn - genta), an effective preventive treatment for white grubs. The application for white grubs will also provide multiple weeks of control of cutworms, armyworms and sod webworms that cause damage throughout the season. Consider which key insect pest(s) to tar - get, and then compare product labels to de- termine what additional spectrum of insects will be controlled. The other consideration is Turfgrass insect management strategies Annual bluegrass weevil Billbugs Chinch bugs European crane fly Mole crickets White grubs Caterpillars Affected turf type Annual bluegrass and creeping bentgrass Cool- and warm-season turfgrass Cool- and warm-season turfgrass Cool-season turfgrass Cool- and warm-season turfgrass Primarily cool- season turfgrass Cool- and warm-season turfgrass Targeted insect stage Adults and larvae Egg hatch, young larvae Nymphs and young adults Egg hatch, young larvae Early nymphs Egg hatch, young larvae Larvae Application initiation Early spring, based on several factors (see WeevilTrak. com) Early spring At first detection Late summer, fall and/or spring Based on soap flush of early nymphs Spring or midsummer At first detection Mode of activity Adults: contact; small larvae: systemic; larger larvae: contact and systemic Larvae: systemic All stages: contact and/or systemic Preventive: systemic; curative: contact Preventive: systemic and/or contact; curative: contact and baits Preventive: systemic; curative: contact/systemic Preventive: contact or systemic; curative: contact or systemic Application frequency Repeat applications throughout season depending on site history, population levels and damage One preventive application; maybe a second application depending on pressure Applications as needed One systemic; multiple contact Applications as needed One preventive application One to two systemic; multiple contact the lack of activity of that treatment on desir- able insects that inhabit the golf course ecosys- tem. Acelepryn is also a good example of how turf maintenance practices and preservation of beneficial/non-target organisms, including pollinators, can coexist. Resistance management A final aspect that is relatively easy to re - cord after an agronomic plan for insect control is in place is the rotation of insecticides with different modes of action. Although most insecticides are efficacious against the target insect, repeated use year after year can lead to the selection of insects that may not be as sensitive to that active ingredient or may even become resistant over time. Fortunately, insecticide resistance in turf - grass pests is relatively limited, especially among insects with annual life cycles, because fewer are exposed to a specific mode of ac - tion in a season. Insect pests that have mul- tiple generations in a season have a higher risk of naturally selecting less-sensitive individu - als from the population. Examples include chinch bugs in areas of Florida and annual bluegrass weevil adults in the Mid-Atlantic region, which both have become resistant to pyrethroids after multiple high-rate applica - tions for multiple years. Rotating insecticides with different modes of action can delay re - sistance while still controlling the current population and preserving control options for future programs. Keeping it fluid Once there's an understanding of the tar - get pest, its life cycle, injury tolerance and Left: Severe damage to bentgrass with larva and adult in center. Preventive or early applications of insecticides for grub control can protect turf from extensive damage. Photo by Steve McDonald Right: Because annual bluegrass weevil is a recurring pest and has for years been exposed to multiple high- rate insecticide applications in the Mid-Atlantic region, insecticide resistance has become a problem in the area. Photo courtesy of Sam Camuso

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