Golf Course Management

JUL 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 74 of 137

07.17 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 71 The RESEARCH SAYS • Nemacur was effective against all turfgrass nematodes. The new nematicides can work just as well, but no single product can control all species of turf nematodes. • Divanem, Indemnify and Nimitz Pro G are three new products available for nematode control in turf. • In Florida, Divanem has been useful for sting, lance, root-knot and other nematodes that inhabit the upper 1.5 inches of soil; however, in California, it has not been effective against An - guina or root-knot, ring and spiral nematodes. • Indemnify has a longer half-life and has been effective against sting, root-knot and ring nematodes in Florida and Anguina pacificae in California. • Nimitz Pro G can kill nematodes in soil and perhaps within turf roots. It has shown activity against sting, lance and root-knot nematodes in Florida, but not against Anguina or ring or spiral nematodes in coastal California. they can select the best options. Also, super- intendents cannot assume that the type of nematode that was the primary problem the previous year will be the same type that is the primary problem in the current year. The nematode complex may change from year to year if only one kind of nematode is being controlled. This makes annual nematode sam - pling very important (3). The potential for the development of re - sistance to these new nematicides is also very real. Resistance to abamectin has been well documented in mites and certain insects for decades (2), and animal-parasitic nematodes have become resistant to ivermectin (7). Vari - ous fungal species did not take long to develop resistance to the SDHI fungicide fluopyram in agriculture use (1,6). For this reason, it is highly recommended that golf courses rotate their nematicides. Fortunately, in Florida, sting, lance and root-knot nematodes can each be managed by at least two of the new nematicides, and each of these nematicides is in a different chemical class. In the case of the Pacific shoot-gall nematode, use of Indemnify should be limited to one or two applications per year. Divanem might be good as a rotation product. Alternating nematicides will prolong the usefulness of these new tools. One area where the new nematicides are far superior to Nemacur is in regard to safety. LD 50 is a measurement of acute toxicity. The lower the LD 50 , the more toxic a substance is. The oral LD 50 (rat) for fenamiphos (in Nema- cur) is 26 milligrams/kilogram; for abamec- tin (in Divanem), it is 310 milligrams/kilo- gram; and for fluensulfone (in Nimitz) and fluopyram (in Indemnify), it is >2,000 mil - ligrams/kilogram. These new nematicides are much safer for people, require less personal protective equipment, and have less potential impact on the environment. These differences are reflected in the signal words on the re - spected product labels. Signal words indicate the relative hazard level for users of a pesticide. The Nemacur label featured the signal word "Danger," reserved for the most toxic prod - ucts. Divanem has the signal word "Warning" (moderately toxic), while the signal word for both Indemnify and Nimitz is "Caution," the lowest hazard level. We are definitely moving in the right direction. Funding The research discussed here was funded in part by Bayer Crop Science, Syngenta Lawn and Garden, and Control Solutions (Quali- Pro). Literature cited 1. Amiri, A., K.A. Mulvaney, L.K. Pandit and D.R. Ange- lis. 2017. First report of resistance to fluxapyroxad and fluopyram in Botrytis cinerea from commercial apple orchards in Washington state. Plant Disease 101(3):508. 2. Clark, J.M., J.G. Scott, F. Campos and J.R. Bloomquist. 1995. Resistance to avermectins: Extent, mechanisms, and management implications. Annual Review of Entomology 40(1):1-30. 3. Crow, B. 2017. How do I know if I have a nematode problem? USGA Green Section Record 55(9):1-6. 4. Crow, W.T. 2005. Alternatives to fenamiphos for man - agement of plant-parasitic nematodes on bermuda- grass. Journal of Nematology 37(4):477-482. 5. Crow, W.T. 2014. Treatment zone of abamectin in golf course greens. Journal of Nematology 46:149. 6. Fernandez-Ortuno, D., A. Perez-Garcia, M. Chamorro, E. de la Pena, A. de Vicente and J.A. Tores. 2017. Resistance to the SDHI fungicides Bascalid, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, and penthiopyrad in Botrytis cinerea from commercial strawberry fields in Spain. Plant Disease (in press). 7. Gasbarre, L.C., L.L. Smith, J.R. Lichtenfels and P.A. Pilitt. 2009. The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the U.S. Veterinary Parasitology 166:281-285. 8. Giblin-Davis, R.M., P. Busey and B.J. Center. 1995. Parasitism of Hoplolaimus galeatus on diploid and polyploid St. Augustinegrasses. Journal of Nematology 27(4):472-477. 9. McClure, M.A., M.E. Schmitt and M.D. McCullough. 2008. Distribution, biology, and pathology of Anguina pacificae. Journal of Nematology 40(3):226-239. 10. Perry, V.G., G.C. Smart Jr. and G.C. Horn. 1970. Nematode problems of turfgrasses in Florida and their control. Florida State Horticultural Society Proceedings 83:489-492. William T. Crow ( is a professor of nema - tology in the Entomology and Nematology Department at the University of Florida, Gainesville; and J. Ole Becker is a Cooperative Extension specialist and nematologist in the Department of Nematology, and James H. Baird is a Coop - erative Extension turfgrass specialist and horticulturist in the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences at the University of California, Riverside.

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