Golf Course Management

JUL 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 72 of 137

07.17 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 69 results. Other ways to improve efficacy of Di- vanem are to tank-mix it with a good soil pen- etrant and apply it following aerification. At the University of Florida, we have had much improved turf responses from Divanem when it was combined with a good fungicide pro - gram. In California, Divanem became avail- able for research purposes in late 2016. Our preliminary results indicate that the product appears to have a positive effect on the recov - ery of Poa annua turf from Anguina damage at high rates and monthly intervals. However, plant-parasitic nematode populations in soil as well as Anguina, root-knot, ring and spiral nematodes were not affected. Indemnify The active ingredient in Bayer's new nema - ticide Indemnify is fluopyram, which is also an SDHI (succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor) fungicide. In Florida, we have evaluated other commercially available SDHIs and have not found them to be nematicidal like fluopyram. The soil adsorption value of fluopyram is in - termediate — although some of the active in- gredient will bind to the thatch, plenty of it makes it through to kill nematodes in the soil. One of the unique properties of fluopyram is that it has an extremely long soil half-life of six months to two years. This means that Indem - nify can provide longer nematode suppression than other turf nematicides. Fluopyram is a contact nematicide, although it is taken up by roots and moved upward through xylem to control foliar diseases caused by fungi. As an SDHI fungicide, Indemnify should be consid - ered a FRAC Group 7 fungicide for resistance management. Research at the University of Florida has shown Indemnify to have broad activity on most types of nematodes. It has proved effec - tive on sting, root-knot, ring nematodes, etc., in lab and field trials. However, labeled rates of Indemnify are not effective on lance nema - todes. Because of its intermediate adsorption value, enough of it gets bound up in thatch to provide good results on root-knot nematode. It will move out of thatch slowly over time, so root-knot nematode control starts to diminish a couple of months after the last application. Sting and other plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil will be impacted as the fluopyram moves through the thatch and into the soil below. In University of Florida trials, Indem - nify provided reductions in sting nematode numbers and positive turf responses for six to eight months or longer after the last applica - tion. If root-knot nematodes are the primary target, irrigate only lightly after application. For sting nematodes, irrigate with ¼ inch (0.6 cm) of water to help move the fluopyram through the thatch. Researchers from the University of Cali - fornia, Riverside conducted a number of tri- als with Indemnify against the Pacific shoot- gall nematode on golf courses from the coastal Monterey Peninsula to the San Francisco Bay Area. At extremely low rates of 0.195 or 0.39 ounce/1,000 square feet (5.95 or 11.9 grams/100 square meters), one to two appli - cations provided season-long protection of annual bluegrass on putting greens that had heavy infestations of Anguina pacificae. The nematicide had little or no effect on soil- dwelling root-knot, ring or spiral nematode Nimitz Pro G being applied to a golf green. The newer nematicides are safer for both people and the environment, and professional applicators are required to wear only minimal per- sonal protective equipment when they apply either Nimitz or Indemnify, which are both labeled "Caution," indicating the lowest hazard level.

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