Golf Course Management

JUL 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 66 of 137

07.17 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 63 the two fairways showed a certain level of sim- ilarity (Figures 5 and 6). At CCC, adult activ- ity in 2015 showed two clear peaks, with one from late April to the beginning of May, and another mainly in August (Figure 5). In 2016, despite the increased population primarily due to the elevated hunting billbug popula - tions, the onset of active periods for billbug adults almost coincided with that of the pre - vious year, both in spring and fall. In 2016, spring billbug activity did not show a clear peak as it had in 2015. This change might be related to the decline in temperature around May 2, 2016, when the average temperature dropped to 51 F, compared with 59 F during the same period in 2015 (data not shown). Previous research has found that billbug spe - cies are strongly influenced by air tempera- tures, and adult activity is particularly inhib- ited when the air temperature drops below 68 F (2). Compared with hunting billbugs, bluegrass billbug adults showed elevated ac - tivity mainly in spring at CCC, indicating that their life cycle has only one generation per year (8). At CCMO, billbug adults appeared to be active during the same periods exhibited at CCC (Figure 6). In spring 2016, a relatively smaller number of billbugs were caught on May 7, likely because of the sudden temper - ature decline that had occurred around May 2 (data not shown). Peak activity at CCMO in fall 2015 was less defined; the factors that may have contributed to such a phenomenon remain unknown. Collectively, our data suggest that hunting billbug is the dominant species on zoysiagrass fairways in Missouri, although the size and composition of the billbug populations can vary substantially from site to site, regardless of proximity. Hunting billbugs in this area appear to complete one and a half to two life cycles per year and likely overwinter as large- sized larvae or adults, respectively. The life cycle of hunting billbug var - ies geographically. It has been reported that hunting billbugs complete one life cycle per year in northern states (8), two overlapping life cycles in North Carolina (1), and up to six generations in Florida (4). In North Caro - lina, the peak active times were April to June and August to October (4). In Missouri, the peaks are from late April to mid-May and late July to the end of August. A thorough understanding of the billbugs' life cycle and peak active times is essential for determining Columbia Country Club Country Club of Missouri Billbug count Bluegrass billbug Hunting billbug Total billbug Bluegrass billbug Hunting billbug Total billbug 2015 2016 Figure 4. Cumulative count of bluegrass billbug and hunting billbug adults retrieved from the 40 pitfall traps at Columbia Country Club and Country Club of Missouri in 2015 and 2016. Billbug count, 2015 and 2016

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