Golf Course Management

MAR 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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76 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 03.17 The RESEARCH SAYS • Turf managers in the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada were surveyed to provide information on the geographic spread and sever - ity of annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), incidence of resistance to insecticides, and current moni - toring and management practices. • Survey responses were collected over a two- month period from 293 golf courses in 14 states and two Canadian provinces, representing an estimated 5.6% of the 5,197 facilities; 90% of the courses indicated ABW was a pest. • Damage was reported in all turf areas, though damage to fairways (69%) and collars/aprons (58%) was most common. Surprisingly, 26% reported damage to greens, an area where dam - age is rarely reported to university personnel. • All respondents identified at least one chemical control used in managing ABW. Pyrethroids were the most commonly used class of insecticides, despite 20% of respondents confirming or sus - pecting ABW resistance to pyrethroids. increased tolerance (4). Our findings high- light the need for novel approaches for con- trolling adults. Registration of a new, highly effective larvicide (cyantraniliprole, Ference) in 2015 (after this survey was conducted) is likely to increase larvicide use, at least against "resistant" populations. Unfortunately, larvi - cides are generally much more expensive than adulticides and are therefore cost-prohibitive for many facilities. Nearly all superintendents who deal with annual bluegrass weevil monitor weevil pop - ulations, but the most widely used methods only help with timing of management as op - posed to estimating population densities. However, 56% of respondents used soil cores to scout for larval stages, which is the most direct and likely the most precise method of assessing the need for treatments. If more courses move away from primary reliance on adulticides, monitoring of larvae will become more important, which could, in turn, reduce total insecticide use. Because highly resistant weevil populations are also more tolerant of — if not resistant to — most of the currently available larvicides, superintendents will also have to start relying more on biorational in - secticides and cultural means to manage wee- vil populations. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the nu- merous golf course superintendent associa- tions who helped to distribute the survey through chapter emails and social media. Benjamin A. McGraw would like to thank GCSAA for providing golf course facility data by state and province. Literature cited 1. Clavet, C.D., E.D. Requintina Jr., D. Ramoutar and S.R. Alm. 2010. Susceptibility of Listronotus maculi - collis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults from south- ern New England golf courses to chlorpyrifos. Florida Entomologist 93:630-632. 2. Golf Canada and the PGA of Canada. 2015. Golf facilities in Canada 2015: The definitive report of golf facilities and development in Canada. (http:// golfcanada.ca/app/uploads/2015/07/NGF-GOLF- CANADA_ENGLISH-Final-July8.pdf). Accessed Jan. 26, 2017. 3. Golf Course Superintendents Association of America (GCSAA). 2007. Golf Course Environmental Profile: Property profile and environmental stewardship of golf courses. Vol. I. (www.gcsaa.org/Uploadedfiles/ Environment/Environmental-Profile/Property-Profile/ Golf-Course-Environmental-Profile--Property-Report. pdf). Accessed Jan. 26, 2017. 4. Koppenhöfer, A.M., S.R. Alm, R.A. Cowles et al. 2012. Controlling annual bluegrass weevil: Optimal insecticide timing and rates. Golf Course Manage - ment 80(3):98-104. 5. Kostromytska, O.S., and A.M. Koppenhöfer. 2014. Ovipositional preferences and larval survival of annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis, on Poa annua and selected bentgrasses (Agrostis spp.). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 152:108- 119. 6. Kostromytska, O.S., and A.M. Koppenhöfer. 2016. Responses of Poa annua and three bentgrass spe - cies (Agrostis spp.) to adult and larval feeding of annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research (in press). 7. McGraw, B.A., and A.M. Koppenhöfer. 2007. Biology and management of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis. Pages 335-350 in M. Pes - sarakli, ed. The Handbook of turfgrass physiology and management. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Fla. 8. McGraw, B.A., and A.M. Koppenhöfer. 2009. Devel - opment of binomial sequential sampling plans for forecasting Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Cur - culionidae) larvae based on the relationship to adult counts and turfgrass damage. Journal of Economic Entomology 102:1325-1335. 9. Ramoutar, D., S.R. Alm and R.S. Cowles. 2009a. Pyrethroid resistance in populations of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from south - ern New England golf courses. Journal of Economic Entomology 102:388-392. 10. Ramoutar, D., R.S. Cowles and S.R. Alm. 2009b. Pyrethroid resistance mediated by enzyme detoxifica - tion in Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Connecticut. Journal of Economic Entomology 102:1203-1208. 11. Vittum, P.J., M.G. Villani and H. Tashiro. 1999. Annual bluegrass weevil. Pages 230-242 in P.J. Vittum, M.G. Villani and H. Tashiro, eds. Turfgrass insects of the United States and Canada. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y. Benjamin A. McGraw (bam53@psu.edu) is an associate professor in the Department of Plant Science at Penn State University, University Park, Pa. Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer is a professor in the Department of Entomology at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.

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