Golf Course Management

MAR 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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03.17 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 73 (2.2) and western peripheral states and re- gions (2.7), and upstate New York (2.3). Development of pyret roid-resistant populations On average, superintendents reported making 2.7 pyrethroid applications per year (including all targeted insect pests) (Table 3). The regions with highest number of py - rethroid applications included Massachusetts (3.9) and the northern peripheral states and provinces (3.6). One in five courses (20.1% of the courses with damaging annual bluegrass weevil popu - lations) reported having a pyrethroid-resistant population either suspected or confirmed by bioassay. [Editor's note: Populations are de - scribed as "resistant" (in quotation marks) to indicate that resistance has been confirmed through scientific means in some populations, but is only suspected in others.] "Resistant" populations were located across the region, though higher-than-average incidence was re - ported from areas with long histories of man- aging annual bluegrass weevil, including Long Island (55% surveyed suspected resistance), Connecticut (48%) and New Jersey (28%) (Table 3). Interestingly, no superintendents in regions with the highest pyrethroid use (Mas - sachusetts and northern peripheral states and provinces), as well as in western peripheral states, suspected they had a pyrethroid-resis - tant population, possibly because annual blue- grass weevil has become problematic in these areas more recently and pyrethroids have not been used for as long. On the whole, "resistant" annual bluegrass weevil populations caused more damage (93% of courses) than susceptible populations (74% of courses) when grouped by seasonal dam - age incidence. Courses with "resistant" popu- lations had a significantly greater number of turf areas damaged (n > 256; U > 3,021.5; P < 0.001), including 84% of collars/approaches and 85% of fairways damaged, compared with 48% and 52% for courses with suscep - tible populations. Courses reporting resistance also had higher numbers of damaged sites (21.2 combined turf areas vs. 9.8 for courses with susceptible populations). Interestingly, a significantly higher percentage of "resistant" courses (36%) than susceptible courses (21%) reported damage to putting greens (n = 278; U = 3451.5; P < 0.001) despite the "resistant" courses having a significantly lower average height of cut for greens (2.84 mm) than the susceptible courses (3.05 mm) (n = 280; U = 4394.5; P = 0.001). Two-thirds of "resistant" courses but only 42% of susceptible courses had annual main - tenance budgets greater than $750,000 (18- hole equivalent). It is not surprising that, given the higher maintenance budgets at "resistant" courses, the average annual insecticide bud - get of "resistant" courses ($19,241 annually) was more than double that of the susceptible courses ($8,361 annually). This statistic is understandable given that the total area dam - aged by annual bluegrass weevil on "resistant" courses is more than double that of susceptible populations for most site categories, including fairways (8.3 vs. 3.4 damaged). Greater insec - ticide budgets on "resistant" courses may also Class Common name Brand name Company Adulticides carbamate carbaryl Sevin Bayer organophosphate chlorpyrifos Dursban Dow AgroSciences pyrethroid bifenthrin Talstar FMC Corp. pyrethroid beta-cyfluthrin Tempo Bayer pyrethroid deltamethrin DeltaGard Bayer pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC Syngenta Larvicides anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole Acelepryn Syngenta neonicotinoid clothianidin Arena Nufarm neonicotinoid imidacloprid Merit Bayer organophosphate trichlorfon Dylox Bayer oxadiazine indoxacarb Provaunt Syngenta spinosyn spinosad Conserve Dow AgroSciences Combination products pyrethroid + neonicotinoid bifenthrin + clothianidin Aloft Nufarm pyrethroid + pyrethroid + neonicotinoid zeta-cypermethrin + bifenthrin + imidacloprid Triple Crown FMC Corp. Table 4. Insecticides available for annual bluegrass weevil control at the time of the survey. Insecticides available for annual bluegrass weevil control at the time of the survey

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