Golf Course Management

MAR 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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72 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 03.17 Management of annual bluegrass weevil populations Budget The annual maintenance budgets for all surveyed golf courses in the region dem - onstrated peaks between $1 million and $1.5 million and between $350,000 and $550,000 per year. Annual insecticide bud - gets averaged $9,270 and ranged between $50 and $75,000 per year. The average an - nual insecticide budgets, when adjusted for an 18-hole equivalent, ranged between ap - proximately $4,000 and approximately $17,000 in subregions that submitted enough responses to summarize (Table 3). Connecti - cut ($14,627), New Jersey ($13,770), New York ($10,000) and Massachusetts ($10,843) had the highest average annual insecticide budgets. Upstate New York and the north - ern peripheral states and provinces ranked the lowest, with median insecticide budgets of $4,072 and $4,781, respectively. Interest - ingly, despite having the most regional re- strictions in terms of insecticide registration and use, Long Island was the highest in me - dian insecticide spending ($17,047). The percentage of the total annual budget used on insecticides was calculated by using a weighted average of the responses on an 18-hole equivalent and dividing by the me - dian value of the range of the annual main- tenance budgets for 18-hole golf courses. Using these values, we determined that insec - ticides account for 1.23% of the total mainte- nance budget. C emical management Each superintendent surveyed identified at least one product that was used in manag - ing the weevil, even though 10% of respon- dents reported no damage to any areas. The pyrethroids and chlorpyrifos (for example, Dursban) used by 79% and 65% of respon - dents, respectively, were the most popular means of controlling annual bluegrass wee - vil adults, despite development of pyrethroid resistance and indications that chlorpyri - fos efficacy may also be reduced (1). Acele- pryn (chlorantraniliprole, Syngenta), an an- thranilic diamide, was the most widely used larvicide (51%), which, in part, may be due to its broad spectrum of activity and role in preventive white grub management. Ference (cyantraniliprole, Syngenta), another anthra - nilic diamide, had not yet been registered for turfgrass at the time of our survey. (A list of insecticides available for control of annual bluegrass weevil at the time the survey was taken is shown in Table 4.) Courses made an average of 3.9 insecti - cide applications per year to manage annual bluegrass weevil (Table 3). States/regions where courses had above-average application frequency were located around the epicen - ter of the annual bluegrass weevil distribu- tion (New Jersey, 4.4; Massachusetts, 4.35; Connecticut, 4.2; Pennsylvania, 4.2; New York, 4.1). Superintendents on Long Island, where the relatively long-residual anthranilic diamides are not registered, made the most annual bluegrass weevil applications per year (5.5), with the highest use of pyrethroids (85%). In this area, 30% of superintendents reported making six or more annual annual bluegrass weevil applications (survey average = 18%), and 20% made 10 or more applica - tions (survey average = 6%). The fewest an- nual applications occurred in the northern Region Median insecticide budget ($) ABW applications/year Pyrethroid apps/year for all pests on course Resistance suspected? (% yes) Noted decrease in treatment effectiveness? (% yes) Avg./year >5 apps (%) >9 apps (%) All regions 9,270 3.9 18 6 2.7 19 14 Northern Periphery 4,781 2.2 0 0 3.6 0 0 Massachusetts 10,843 4.4 13 10 3.9 0 7 Connecticut 14,627 4.2 20 12 1.7 48 24 New York 10,112 4.1 18 14 3.3 29 29 Long Island 17,047 5.5 30 20 2.9 55 35 Upstate New York 4,072 2.3 0 0 2.7 8 8 New Jersey 13,770 4.4 23 0 2.4 28 19 Pennsylvania 9,628 4.2 24 1 3.0 22 12 Eastern Pennsylvania 11,422 4.4 24 3 2.9 24 18 Western Pennsylvania 8,914 3.9 23 0 3.3 17 7 Delaware-Maryland- Virginia 7,422 3.6 17 0 2.8 5 7 Western Periphery 10,444 2.9 0 0 2.0 0 19 † ABW, annual bluegrass weevil Table 3. Average insecticide budgets and trends in chemical management of Listronotus maculicollis populations. Average insecticide budgets and trends in chemical management of ABW †

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