Golf Course Management

MAR 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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03.17 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 69 insecticides, primarily pyrethroids used to prevent adults from laying eggs. Not sur - prisingly, pyrethroid resistance has been re- ported (9) and seems to be on the rise (Mc- Graw and Koppenhöfer, unpublished data). Effective alternatives to pyrethroids include the larvicides chlorantraniliprole and cyan - traniliprole (class: anthranilic diamides), spinosad (class: spinosyns), indoxacarb (class: oxadiazines), and trichlorfon (class: organophosphates) (4). However, pyrethroid resistance in annual bluegrass weevil seems to be, at least in part, due to enhanced en - zymatic detoxification (10), a rather nonspe- cific mechanism that breaks down most ac- tive ingredients before they can reach their targets in the organism. As a result, most of the insecticides presently available seem to be less effective against resistant annual blue - grass weevil populations (4). Our ultimate goal is to develop optimal management recommendations for annual bluegrass weevil populations with differ - ent levels of insecticide resistance. To this end, we are conducting laboratory and field studies to better understand the scope of re - sistance in annual bluegrass weevil (degree of resistance to different insecticide classes, stages affected). It is also important, however, to gather information from turfgrass man - agers to better understand the geographic spread and severity of the pest, incidence of resistance, and current monitoring and man - agement practices. Materials and methods A Google document survey was created in fall 2014 to capture regional trends in annual bluegrass weevil management, and to help us understand the severity and extent of damage throughout the area where the pest is currently causing problems on golf courses. A link to the survey was sent to golf course superinten - dents through a variety of avenues, including social media (for example, Twitter), hard cop - ies distributed at educational conferences, and emails from local GCSAA chapters. The sur - vey was made available from Nov. 14, 2014 through the end of January 2015. The survey consisted of 26 questions, which could be grouped into three gen - eral categories: 1. Local and regional damage. Turfgrass areas damaged (for example, greens, tees, fair - ways), number of damaged areas and sea- sonal occurrence of damage 2. Annual bluegrass weevil management. Num - ber of insecticide applications, total insecti- cide budget, pyrethroid use, and suspected (or confirmed) development of insecticide- resistant populations 3. Integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Scouting techniques, spot-treatment fre - quency, information acquisition, and in- fluence of university recommendations on management decisions The majority of surveys (79.5%) were completed by superintendents of 18-hole fa - cilities. Therefore, budget values were trans- formed into 18-hole equivalents for reporting several economic statistics. The proportion of insecticide budgets within the annual main - tenance budgets was calculated only from the responses of the 18-hole golf courses, because turf managers were asked for a range of main - tenance budgets rather than an exact dollar amount. The responses for the number of damaged turf areas (for example, greens, tees, fairways) were also converted to 18-hole equiv - alents before using descriptive statistics. Dif- ferences between pyrethroid-susceptible and "resistant" courses in number of areas (green, tee, fairway), insecticide budget, applications to control annual bluegrass weevil, and pyre - throid use were analyzed by non-parametric rank-sum tests. All data were transformed into 18-hole equivalents before analysis. Results and discussion Responses Responses were collected from 293 golf courses in 14 states and two Canadian prov - inces during the two months the survey re- mained open (Figure 1). The survey was completed by an estimated 5.6% of the 5,197 facilities in the surveyed area (2; GCSAA, personal communication). The survey re - quired specifying a location at the state or province level (minimum), although more detail was encouraged. Most respondents pro - vided city and state/province data, which al- lowed us to develop detailed survey maps and divide the responses into regions in most in - stances (Table 1). The majority of responses (86%) came from courses located in Pennsyl - vania (25%), New York (19%), New Jersey (11%), Massachusetts (11%), Virginia (11%) and Connecticut (9%). Data were grouped by Figure 1. Distribution of the Listronotus maculicollis (annual bluegrass weevil) management survey responses. Distribution of survey responses

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