Golf Course Management

MAR 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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68 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 03.17 Benjamin A. McGraw, Ph.D. Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer, Ph.D. A survey of annual bluegrass weevil management Annual bluegrass weevil is spreading to new regions at the same time more populations are becoming resistant to currently available insecticides. The annual bluegrass weevil (Listrono- tus maculicollis Kirby) is the most difficult to control insect pest of short-mowed golf course turf in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Annual bluegrass wee - vil was first isolated from damaged turf on Long Island in 1957, and until about 1990, was concentrated around the metropolitan area of New York, including northeastern New Jersey and southwestern Connecticut (7). The pest has consistently expanded its range of impact over the past decades, with infestations now reported from the south - ern parts of Quebec and Ontario in Canada south through western North Carolina and west to eastern Ohio. Annual bluegrass weevil larvae can cause severe turf damage on tees, fairways, greens and collars that have high percentages of an - nual bluegrass (Poa annua L.), as this grass is particularly attractive to egg-laying females and has low tolerance to larval feeding (5,6). Females place eggs between the leaf sheaths or inside the stem of the turfgrass plant. The first through third larval instars feed within the grass stem, causing the central leaf blades to yellow and die. The third instars eventually exit the stem, and the fourth and fifth instars feed externally at the soil/thatch surface. The late-instar larval feeding damage is most se - vere, because it damages the apical meristem of the turfgrass plant. Presently, chemical control is the only ef - fective strategy for annual bluegrass weevil management (11). Consequently, turfgrass managers often overuse broad-spectrum A fifth-instar larva (top) and an adult annual bluegrass weevil. Photos by B.A. McGraw

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