Golf Course Management

FEB 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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82 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 02.17 The RESEARCH SAYS • After a 60-year hiatus from U.S. golf courses, the green stinkworm (Amynthas hupeiensis ), a native of East Asia whose prolific casts disrupt play and maintenance, has been found on sev - eral courses in Kentucky. • No castings or signs of the earthworms ap - peared in greens in winter, but adults and juveniles were found in the greens' surrounds, where they likely overwinter until early spring, when they migrate to the greens. • Asian earthworms are aggressive invaders and have become established around the banks of lakes and rivers as the result of anglers discarding bait. They may also be transported as cocoons in compost, mulch or soil. A single cocoon could potentially establish a population. • No products are currently registered for green stinkworm control. As a side effect of treating for nuisance ants with either of two neonicoti - noid-pyrethroid combination insecticides, nearly 100% control of worms was achieved for at least eight weeks after application. Triple Crown) we evaluated. Neither product is registered for earthworm control, but both are labeled for use against nuisance ants on golf course putting greens. When applied at label rates for ants, they can be expected to provide, as a side effect, at least two months' control of casting by A. peiensis. 6. Potter, D.A., C.T. Redmond, K.M. Meepagala and D.W. Williams. 2010. Managing earthworm casts (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in turfgrass using a natu - ral byproduct of tea oil (Camellia sp.) manufacture. Pest Management Science 66:439-446. 7. Potter, D.A., C.T. Redmond and D.W. Williams. 2011. The worm turns: Earthworm cast reduction on golf courses. Golf Course Management 79(9):86-96. 8. Potter, D.A., C.T. Redmond and D.W. Williams. 2013. Managing excessive earthworm casting on golf courses and sport fields. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 12:347-355. 9. Redmond, C.T., A. Saeed and D.A. Potter. 2016. Seasonal biology of the invasive green stinkworm Amynthas hupeiensis and control of its casts on golf course putting greens. Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management 2016 (2): doi:10.2134/cftm2016.0006 10. Schread, J.C. 1948. The tropical earthworm. USGA Journal (Autumn) 12-13. 11. Schread, J.C. 1952. Habits and control of the Orien - tal earthworm. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 556, New Haven, Conn. Daniel A. Potter ( is a professor and Carl T. Redmond is a research scientist in the Department of Entomology at the University of Kentucky-Lexington. Abiya Saeed was a research technician in the Department of Entomology at the University of Kentucky-Lexington and is currently consumer horticulture program instructor and master gardener coordinator at Michigan State University Extension in Genesee County, Mich. Figure 7. Amynthas-infested sand-based greens before (left) and after (right) application of Aloft (clothianidin + bifenthrin) insecticide at the label rate for nuisance ants. Note nearly a 100% reduction in casts. Right photo by Carl Redmond Funding We thank the O.J. Noer Turfgrass Re- search Foundation for a grant that helped sup- port this research. Acknowledgments We thank the staff of Beechfork Golf Club in Clay City, Ky., for their cooperation. Literature cited 1. Bellitürk, K., J.H. Görres, J. Kunkle and R.D.S. Melni- chuk. 2015. Can commercial mulches be reservoirs of invasive earthworms? Promotion of ligninolytic enzyme activity and survival of Amynthas agrestis (Goto and Hatai, 1899). Applied Soil Ecology 87:27- 31. 2. Greiner, H.G., D.R. Kashian and S.D. Tiegs. 2012. Impacts of invasive Asian (Amynthas hilgendorfi ) and European (Lumbricus rubellus ) earthworms in a North American temperate deciduous forest. Biological Invasions 14:2017-2027. 3. Hendrix, P.F., M.A. Callaham Jr., J.M. Drake, C.Y. Huang, S.M. James, B.A. Snyder and W. Zhang. 2008. Pandora's box contained bait: The global problem of introduced earthworms. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 39:593-613. 4. James, S.W., and P.F. Hendrix. 2004. Invasion of exotic earthworms into North America and other regions. Pages 75-88 in C.A. Edwards, ed. Earth - worm ecology. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. 5. Maier, R.M., and D.A. Potter. 2005. Factors affecting distribution of the mound-building turfgrass ant Lasius neoniger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and implica - tions for management of golf course putting greens. Journal of Economic Entomology 98:891-898.

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