Golf Course Management

JAN 2017

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 137 of 179

128 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 01.17 management industry are BMP and TMDL. The phrase "best management practice" (BMP) can mean different things to profes - sionals and to the public. • A BMP can be a structural or engineered feature such as a treatment wetland, de - tention pond or bioswale. • A BMP can refer to a practice or proce - dure that reduces or prevents contami- nation such as preventing runoff con- taining pollutants that can deteriorate water quality. • A BMP can refer to a cultural practice or an agronomic practice such as aerification that is beneficial to turfgrass health and ultimately helps conserve resources. All three of these definitions apply to golf, from design and build to daily operations and maintenance. Most often, BMP within the regulatory framework are linked to the pass - ing of the 1973 Clean Water Act by Con- gress. The goal of the Clean Water Act is "to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters" (33 U.S.C. §1251(a)). Figure 2 illustrates the EPA's approach: States, territories and autho - rized tribes ("states") must establish water- quality standards; monitor and assess the state's water quality; and develop plans to im - prove the water where needed. TMDL Section 303(d) of the act specifically re - quires states to establish Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) for impaired waters on a prioritized schedule. A TMDL is a pollution budget — a scientific calculation of the maxi - mum amount of a pollutant that can be pres- ent in a body of water and it still meet water- quality standards. The extent of the pollution, the identity of the pollutants (for example, algal, heavy metals, nutrients, pathogens, etc.), and the use of the water (for example, health of aquatic life, public recreation, drinking, etc.) are taken into consideration as the TMDL is developed. The TMDL is a planning tool that pro - vides the benchmark by which states can mea- sure their progress in attaining or maintaining water-quality standards. The key step of Sec - tion 303(d) is the assessment of the state's water conditions, identifying the good, threatened and impaired waters. A comprehensive web - site ( index.home ) shows the condition of each state's surface water. As an example, Table 1 shows the conditions of the water in North Caro - Protecting surface waters from pollution caused by nutrient loss from golf course fertilization is a focus of both local regulations and federal legislation such as the Clean Water Act. Photo by Todd Lowe

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