Golf Course Management

FEB 2016

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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90 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 02.16 control the new pests, or they are ineffective because they are not applied at the appropri - ate time. Examples include neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid (Merit, Bayer), clothiani - din (Arena, Valent), thiamethoxam (Merid- ian, Syngenta) and their generic equivalents, which are excellent white grub insecticides. Sugarcane beetle grubs and hunting billbugs, however, have appeared in many areas treated with these products. Although these com - pounds are capable of controlling the "new" pests, the life cycles of the new pests do not coincide with those of the old pests, and the susceptible stages of the new pests escape the window for application and persistent residual activity of the new products. This is not a knock on the products, but if specifc products are consistently used for decades, pests can be - come a problem if they aren't susceptible to the product or if their life cycle allows them to escape exposure. This scenario has been ob - served repeatedly in feld crops. Perhaps one of the frst examples we saw of this phenomenon for insect control in turf was the appearance of white grubs in areas treated with fpronil (Top Choice or Chipco Choice, Right: Damage to warm-season turfgrass from hunting billbugs has become more common over the past 10 years. Photo by Jake Doskocil Below: The hunting billbug is often observed on putting greens and cart paths, but rarely on fairways and roughs, which are the areas where it causes the most turf damage. Photo by Clyde Sorenson control) changes. Some insects that were sup- pressed for years by one group of insecticides may not be controlled or affected by the newer products. This has likely played a major role with some of the new pests observed in the U.S. in recent years. It has occurred in agricul - tural crops such as cotton, for which growers have relied on specifc groups of insecticides for a long period of time. When a group of insecticides is introduced to control the primary pests, the industry transitions to using only the newer, more ef - fective products against key pests. Over the next 10 years, different pests begin to emerge, which shouldn't be a surprise, as insects are very capable of jumping through any doors humans open. Newer insecticides In the early 1980s, the industry relied al - most exclusively on insecticides in the organo- phosphate and carbamate groups for insect control. Then about 20 years ago, we switched to neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and phenylpyr - azoles. Now, after almost two decades of rely- ing on these products, some new pests have appeared. The newer products either cannot Pests can become a problem if they aren't susceptible to the product or if their life cycle allows them to escape exposure.

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