Golf Course Management

FEB 2016

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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32 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 02.16 Adam Van Dyke, M.S., CPAg Twitter: @AvanDiggity Presented in partnership with Barenbrug (turf) they feed on roots and crowns of turf. Larger larvae (see photo) will even emerge to forage on aboveground stems and leaves at night. Birds, skunks and raccoons can cause additional dis - ruption to turf as they forage for the crane fy larvae. Invasive crane fies prefer moist soils, and their survival is favored by mild winters and wet, cool summers. Careful applications of irrigation water to avoid excessive wetness helps manage crane fies, but new plantings (sod and seed) require more water to establish and may therefore become targets for the pest. When excess water cannot be avoided, chemi - cal options are available. As with any turf pest, taking an integrated approach is best, begin - ning with scouting and setting a threshold for damage to the site. In general, more feld studies on the com - mon crane fy are needed, including looking at late-spring/early-summer applications for targeted control of early second-generation lar - vae, which may also act as preventive white grub or billbug applications. Baseline infor - mation on the distribution and density of T. oleracea in Utah is necessary to monitor future change and develop management programs. For detailed information, see GCM articles about the life cycle and control of crane fies in the Pacifc Northwest (by Gwen Stahnke et al., December 1995), and the geographic distribu - tion and local incidence and control of invasive crane fies in the northeastern U.S. (by Daniel Peck et al., March and April 2009). Adam Van Dyke is the owner of Professional Turfgrass Solu- tions LLC, located in South Jordan, Utah. In the summer of 2012, while conducting an insecticide effcacy trial at Oquirrh Hills Golf Course in Tooele, Utah, I got a call from superintendent Brian Roth, CGCS, telling me there was feeding damage on the untreated putting greens of our trial. The insects I pulled from the root zones were not what we had ex - pected, though. In fact, we didn't know the in- sects. The longtime superintendent had never seen larvae like these on the course before. I sent specimens to Daniel Peck, Ph.D., of En - tomoTech Fundamentals in New York, and he confrmed the larvae were those of crane fies. Native crane fies do not damage turf, but the identifcation of larvae to species is diff - cult and expensive. Adult specimens were thus needed to confrm which exotic crane fy had been found. In 2013, pupal cases and crane fy adults were reported on several more golf courses in Salt Lake and Utah counties. It was not until Sept. 15, 2014, however, that I was able to capture adult crane fies at The Ridge Golf Club in West Valley City, Utah. The adults were identifed as an invasive type — the common crane fy (Tipula oleracea L.) — by Benjamin McGraw, Ph.D., at the Penn State University Turfgrass Entomology Lab. Tipula oleracea is native to southern Europe and northern Africa, and was frst reported in North America in 1998 in Vancouver, Canada, with sightings in Washington and Oregon in 1999 and Northern California in 2004. Tip - ula oleracea had also been found in New York and Michigan. The crane fies collected in Utah were the frst confrmed fnds of T. oler - acea in the Intermountain West, a substantial distance from the sightings in the northwestern and northeastern U.S. How did T. oleracea fnd its way to Utah? Invasive pests are often shipped long distances in nursery plants, and it is possible that larvae and pupae of T. oleracea were introduced from contaminated nursery stock shipped from Or - egon and planted in 2011 as part of a reno- vation project at Oquirrh Hills. The presence of T. oleracea should be alarming to turf man - agers in the state, because Dr. Peck reported that 22% to 56% of greens and tees in New York were infested within one to two years after initial detection. Larvae can cause extensive damage, inhab - iting primarily the top 3 inches of soil, where Crane fy larvae were found in native soil push- up greens at Oquirrh Hills Golf Course in 2012. Photo by Adam Van Dyke Invasive crane fy fnds a home in Utah turf Larvae can cause extensive damage, inhabiting primarily the top 3 inches of soil, where they feed on roots and crowns of turf.

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