Golf Course Management

FEB 2016

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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92 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 02.16 Bayer). White grubs had rarely been a prob- lem in mole cricket areas, because the prod- ucts used in the past were broad-spectrum and also killed white grubs. Fipronil, one of the best mole cricket products, does not con - trol white grubs, and where fpronil was used extensively for several years, some white grub problems occurred. Fipronil did not cause white grub outbreaks; rather, the white grubs were able to take advantage of the fact that this new product was ineffective against them. Emerging pests Predicting the emergence of new pests is diffcult, but sugarcane beetles, hunting bill - bugs and annual bluegrass weevils — along with the more frequent occurrence of earth - worms on tees and greens — are developing pests in the southeastern U.S. This emer - gence of several new pests seems to be a global phenomenon. That doesn't mean everyone is going to be overwhelmed with new insect pests, nor that the old pests going away — it is simply a warning that new problems are show - ing up in many areas. We need to know about the pests we are trying to control. Among the challenges re - ported by superintendents around the world as they battle insect pests are the lack of good data and the lack of knowledge about the life cycles and biology of certain insect pests. Finding a product that actually controls the insect might be the easy part. Determining the best time to apply that product for optimal control, prevention of turf damage, cost effec - tiveness and environmental safety is a separate issue. We have tried to give superintendents as much advice as possible so they can fgure out the answers to these questions on their own for their location. Some of this information comes easy, but some data are a bit more dif - fcult to gather. There is a common theme among many of the pests we encounter, regardless of their lo - cation. Insect pests such as white grubs, mole crickets, armyworms and billbugs are present throughout the globe, and even though the species are different, most groups share similar life cycles, cause similar types of damage, and are controlled in much the same way. There are dramatic differences, however, in the tim - ing of various life stages, and this is critical to effective control, especially in warmer, more tropical environments. Insects such as white grubs, mole crickets and even billbugs present a special challenge because they spend a portion of their lives underground. In fact, most white grubs and The sugarcane beetle can cause serious damage to warm-season turfgrass. Photo by Terri Billeisen Like its close relatives the carrot beetle and rice beetle, the sugarcane beetle is large enough to be easily spotted yet is most active at night. Photo by Clyde Sorenson

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