Golf Course Management

OCT 2014

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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10.14 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 93 The RESEARCH SAYS • Recent declines in populations of honey bees and other pollinators have been tentatively linked to neonicotinoid insecticides, which are used widely in agriculture and turf and ornamentals. • Honey bees may be exposed to these chemicals over long periods of time and in many situations. • The four most common neonicotinoids in the turf industry are: imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran. • Because these products remain in the soil for a long period and they are easily taken up and moved throughout a plant's vascular system, they have the potential to harm non-target beneficial insects. • The potential hazard to bees can be reduced by avoiding treatment of flowering weeds with neonicotinoids; mowing turf before an insecticide application; removing weeds with a herbicide before applying an insecticide; applying insecticides when bees are not active; creating buffer strips between treated turf and landscape beds; delaying treatment of flowering trees until after petal fall; and considering alternative chemistries. Disclaimer Reference in this publication to any spe- cifc commercial product, process or service, or the use of any trade, frm or corporation name is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement, recommendation or certifcation of any kind by Purdue University or GCSAA. Individuals using such products assume responsibility for their use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer. Acknowledgments We acknowledge Dr. Christian Krupke and Dr. Cliff Sadof for helpful comments and constructive criticism of early drafts of this manuscript. We also thank Dr. Dan Herms for providing helpful information concerning the safety of emerald ash borer insecticides with respect to honey bees. Literature cited 1. Henry, M., M. Béguin, F. Requier et al. 2012. A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees. Science 336:348-350. DOI:10.1126/science.1215039. 2. Herms, D.A., D.G. McCullough, D.R. Smitley et al. 2014. Insecticide options for protecting ash trees from emerald ash borer. North Central IMP Center Bulletin. 2nd edition. ( fles/multistate_eab_insecticide_fact_sheet.pdf). Accessed Sept. 2, 2014. 3. Hladik, M.L., D.W. Kolpin and K.M. Kuivila. 2014. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA. Environmental Pollution 193:189-196. 4. Huseth, A.S., and R.L. Groves. 2014. Environmen - tal fate of soil applied neonicotinoid insecticides in an irrigated potato agroecosystem. PLoS ONE 9(5):e97081. 5. IUPAC. 2014. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ( Accessed Aug. 23, 2014. 6. Krupke, C.H., G.J. Hunt, B.D. Eitzer et al. 2012. Mul - tiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees liv- ing near agricultural felds. PLoS ONE 7(1):e29268. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029268 7. Larson, J.L., C.T. Redmond and D.A. Potter. 2013. Assessing insecticide hazard to bumble bees forag - ing on fowering weeds in treated lawns. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66375. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066375 8. Mayer, D.F., C.A. Johansen and C.R. Baird. 1999. How to reduce bee poisoning from pesticides. PNW518, A Pacifc Northwest Extension Publica - tion, ( Accessed Aug. 23, 2014. 9. Morton, H.L., J.O. Moffett and H.R. MacDonald. 1972. Toxicity of herbicides to newly emerged honey bees. Environmental Entomology 1(1):102-104. 10. Peck, D.C. 2009. Comparative impacts of white grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) control products on the abundance of non-target soil-active arthropods in turfgrass. Pedobiologia 52(5):287-299. 11. Tu, M., C. Hurd and J.M. Randall. 2001. Weed Control Methods Handbook. Version: April 2001. The Nature Conservancy ( handbook.html). Accessed Aug. 23, 2014. 12. United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA's review of the European Food Safety Authority's con - clusions regarding studies involving the neonicotinoid pesticides ( updates/2013/efsa-conclus.html). Accessed Sept. 2, 2014. 13. Van Dijk, T.C., M.A. Van Staalduinen and J.P. Van der Sluijs. 2013. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid. PLoS ONE 8(5):e62374. Doug Richmond (drichmond@, twitter: @ doctorDRich) is an associate professor of entomology and Aaron Patton is an associate professor and turfgrass and weed scientist. Both are faculty members at Purdue University.

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