Golf Course Management

AUG 2014

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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they provide some drainage beneft. Thicker fabrics have better hydraulic capability than thin fabrics. The more drainage lines under a fabric, the better the chances the sand will stay put during rain events due to the sand unloading water into the drain line. If bunkers are very fat and have little chance of sand movement, a geotextile may be a good option. • Impermeable liners. If keeping sand sepa - rated from soil is the only criteria, imper- meable liners can do just that. Impermeable layers do not provide any draining char - acteristics. Although they may keep sand clean and separated from the subgrade, they lack any lateral water fow capability needed to stop washouts. The maintenance staff may need to shovel sand back into place and recompact it following rain events. • Drainage layers. These have the ability to drain sand quickly, which in turn stops most sand erosion problems with fewer drain lines. The upfront cost (usually 10-15 percent higher) of these drainage layers of polymer-sprayed rock, porous concrete or porous asphalt can be recouped in just a few years of labor savings and can more than double the life of the sand. Courses that have experienced frequent washouts in regions with heavy rainfall may fnd a high-speed drainage layer makes more sense because of their improved hydraulic conductivity. 6 . Design for maintenance and longer bunker life It disturbs me that many clubs spend more resources on bunkers than any other part of their course. The argument can be made that they are "hazards." But let's face it, no golfer wants to play out of muddy, wet, eroded bun - kers — thus, they become a time-consum- ing expense. While the key in designing bunkers should be reducing maintenance and the associated costs as much as possible, architects should not be limited to designing and building only fat bunkers. Here's what a good bunker design should do. • Match the slope of the bunker with the angle of repose of the sand. AOR is the maximum slope at which the sand will stay in place. We prefer to use 80 percent of the AOR, but always stay below 100 percent. Anything above 100 percent requires ap - proval of Sir Isaac Newton. • Use drainage layers on slopes steeper than If bunkers are very fat and have little chance of sand movement, a geotextile may be a good option. AERATORs | dethatchers | overseeders | sod cutters Request FREE product information | Locate a dealer | Schedule your FREE demo Call (toll-free) 866-469-1242 or visit ©2014 Schiller Grounds Care, Inc Complete your aeration arsenal with a walk-behind Lawnaire ® IV or V. Our unique Easy Steer Technology reduces operator fatigue and gets the job done fast by letting you turn the aerator without removing the tines from the ground. For unmatched coring precision with minimal turf disruption, the Lawnaire ® 28 reciprocating-tine aerator provides exceptional performance and reliability.

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