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98 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 08.14 RESEARCH SAYS ¥ Few herbicides are labeled for use on putting greens. ¥ Problem weeds in greens include crabgrass, goosegrass, Poa annua, sedge and kyllinga species and broadleaf weeds. ¥ Recent research showed that broadleaf herbicides labeled for use on greens can be safely applied at labeled rates in the spring and fall; injury is more likely to occur from spring applications. ¥ In the same study, some herbicides were safer than others; unacceptable injury can occur from higher-than-labeled herbicide rates such as from spot applications. ¥ To prevent potential damage, superintendents should use only products labeled specifically for putting green use. safer than others with high rates of dicamba, triclopyr and 2,4-D causing injury; and un - acceptable injury can occur from higher- than-labeled herbicide rates such as from spot applications. Conclusions Although most golf course superinten- dents have few weed problems other than an- nual bluegrass in their putting greens, weeds do occasionally invade. If only a handful of weeds are present within a single green, me - chanically removing these weeds is the most effcient method of control. Herbicide appli - cations are only warranted when weed pres- sure is signifcant. In these cases, research has confrmed that several herbicides labeled for use on putting greens can be used safely and successfully to control weeds when label direc - tions are followed. More herbicides are registered for use on fairways and tees than on putting greens. Considering the scope of effcacy and toler - ance testing required across a wide geographic region before a herbicide receives labeling, there is likely good reason a particular product is not labeled for putting green use — it could result in undesirable injury. Herbicide labels that neither restrict nor allow putting green use place all liability on the end user, so use caution with these products. For t ese reasons, it is best to use only products wit pecifc label instructions for putting greens. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Drs. Lambert McCarty and Travis Gannon for their assistance with this manuscript. This article is a compilation of previously published University of Tennessee and Pur - due University Extension publications and a research article authored by the same authors in Applied Turfgrass Science. • Brosnan, J.T., and G.K. Breeden. 2011. Herbicides for Use on Golf Course Putting Greens. University of Tennessee Extension Publication W268. Knoxville, Tenn. • Patton, A.J., and D.V. Weisenberger. 2014. Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals. AY-336. Purdue University Extension Pub - lication, West Lafayette, Ind. • Patton, A.J., D.V. Weisenberger, J.T. Bros - nan and G.K. Breeden. 2013. Safety of la- beled herbicides for broadleaf weed control in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Ap - plied Turfgrass Science doi:10.1094/ATS- 2013-0523-01-BR. Literature cited 1. Anonymous. 1946. Fall care of bentgrass putting greens. Timely Turf Topics. USGA Green Section Record October/November. p. 1. 2. Bingham, S.W. 1969. Herbicides and putting green turfgrasses. Proceedings International Turfgrass Research Conference 1:374-379. 3. Borst, S.M., J.S. McElroy and G.K. Breeden. 2010. Silvery thread moss control in creeping bentgrass putting greens with mancozeb plus copper hydroxide and carfentrazone applied in conjunction with cultural practices. HortTechnology 20:574-578. 4. Busey, P. 2003. Cultural management of weeds: a review. Crop Science 1899-1911. 5. Cross, R., L.B. McCarty, N. Tharayil et al. 2013. Detecting annual bluegrass resistance to ALS- inhibiting herbicides using a rapid diagnostic assay. Weed Science 61:384Ð389. doi:10.1614/WS-D-12- 00172.1 6. Dernoeden, P. 2013. Creeping Bentgrass Manage - ment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. 7. Haguewood, J.B., and X. Xiong. 2012. Control of crabgrass on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) putting greens using preemergence herbicide. Pro - ceedings North Central Weed Science Society 67:39. 8. Jeffries, M.D., F.H. Yelverton and T.W. Gannon 2013. Annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass put - ting greens with amicarbazone and paclobutrazol. Weed Technology 27:520-526. 9. Kaminski, J.E., and P.H. Dernoeden. 2007. Seasonal Poa annua L. emergence patterns in Maryland. Crop Science 47:775-781 10. McElroy, S. 2012. Herbicide-resistant weeds: A 21st century problem. Golf Course Management 80(11):84-86, 88. 11. McElroy, J.S., R.H. Walker, G.R. Wehtje and E. van Santen. 2004 Annual bluegrass (Poa annua ) popula - tions exhibit variation in germination response to tem- perature, photoperiod, and fenarimol. Weed Science 52:47-52. 12. Reicher, Z. 2014. Controlling moss or goosegrass in new creeping bentgrass seedlings. Online. http://turf. unl.edu/pdfctarticles/June9_CBG_Seedlings_moss_ goosegrass.pdf 13. Reicher, Z., M. Sousek, R. Calhoun et al. 2013. Controlling Poa annua on putting green height turf in Indiana, Michigan, and Nebraska: 2012 Research Update. 2012 Annual ReportÐPurdue University Turf - grass Science Program, p. 32-34. Online. www.agry. purdue.edu/turf/report/2012/PDF/2012_Purdue TurfResearchSummary.pdf 14. Straw, C., G. Henry, T. Williams et al. 2012. Post- emergence control of lesser swinecress in creeping bentgrass putting greens. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Annual Meetings, Cincinnati, Ohio. Oct. 21-24, 2012. Paper 105-7. 15. Thompson, C., J. Fry and M. Kennelly. 2011. Evalu - ation of conventional and alternative products for silvery-thread moss control in creeping bentgrass. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science doi:10.1094/ATS- 2011-1018-01-RS Jim Brosnan (firstname.lastname@example.org; Twitter: @ UTTurf weeds) is an associate professor of turfgrass weed sci- ence and Greg Breeden is an Extension specialist at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. Aaron Patton is an associate professor at Purdue University, West Lafay - ette, Ind.