Golf Course Management

JUL 2014

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07.14 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 83 untreated control treatment (Figure 2). The benefcial effects of sequential applica - tion of Primo Maxx and glycine betaine were more pronounced than when either product was applied singly. The two chemicals had additive or synergistic effects in maintaining higher-quality turf under prolonged drought stress. The additive effects of sequential Primo Maxx application before drought stress fol - lowed by glycine betaine application dur- ing drought stress in creeping bentgrass were manifested as enhanced turf quality and leaf hydration in creeping bentgrass exposed to drought in both 2010 and 2011 (Figures 1-3). Combining Primo Maxx for improving turf density and reduction in water consumption before drought stress and glycine betaine for improving leaf water retention and antioxi - dant activity ultimately improved turf quality during prolonged periods of drought. Incor - porating both plant growth regulators and os- moregulants into turfgrass management pro- tocols in a programmatic approach could be benefcial for managing cool-season turfgrass species in environments with prolonged peri - ods of drought stress. Funding This research was supported by the O.J. Noer Research Foundation, the Rutgers Cen - ter for Turfgrass Science and the New Jer- sey Agricultural Experiment Station at Rut- gers University. Literature cited 1. Bian, X., E. Merewitz and B. Huang. 2009. Effects of trinexapac-ethyl on drought responses in creeping bentgrass associated with water use and osmotic adjustment. Journal of the American Society for Horti - cultural Science 134:505–510. 2. Ervin, E.H., and A.J. Koski. 2001. Trinexapac-ethyl effects on Kentucky bluegrass evapotranspiration. Crop Science 41:247-250. 3. Farooq, M., S.M.A. Basra, A. Wahid et al. 2008. Physiological role of exogenously applied glycine betaine to improve drought tolerance in fne grain aromatic rice (Oryza sativa l.). Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science 194: 325–333. doi: 10.1111/j.1439- 037X.2008.00323.x 4. Khan M.S., X. Yu, A. Kikuchi et al. 2009. Genetic engineering of glycine betaine biosynthesis to enhance abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Plant Biotechnology Journal 26:125–134. 5. Lickfeldt, D.W., D.S. Gardner, B.E. Branham and T.B. Voigt. 2001. Implications of repeated trinexapac- ethyl applications on Kentucky bluegrass. Agronomy Journal 93:1164–1168. 6. McCann, S., and B. Huang. 2007. Effects of trinexa - pac-ethyl foliar application on creeping bentgrass responses to combined drought and heat stress. Crop Science 47:2121-2128. 7. McCann, S., and B. Huang. 2008. Drought responses of Kentucky bluegrass and creeping bentgrass as affected by abscisic acid and trinexapac-ethyl. Jour - nal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 133:20–26. 8. Nilsen, E.T., and D.M. Orcutt. 1996. Physiology of plants under stress — abiotic factors. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 9. Xu, C., and B. Huang. 2012. Proteins and metabolites regulated by trinexapac-ethyl in relation to drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass. Plant Growth Regu - lation 31:25-37. 10. Yang, Z., J. Yu, E. Merewitz and B. Huang. 2012. Dif - ferential effects of abscisic acid and glycine betaine on physiological responses to drought and salinity stress for two perennial grass species. Journal of the Ameri - can Society for Horticultural Science 137:96-106. Bingru Huang, Ph.D. (, is a professor and Patrick Burgess is a laboratory researcher in the department of plant biology and pathology at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. RESEARCH SAYS • Trinexapac-ethyl (TE), a widely used plant growth regulator, has been found to reduce evapotranspirational water loss. • Previous research indicates that applying glycine betaine at the onset of soil dry-down periods and during those periods may alleviate leaf dehydration and sustain active growth in turf. • Our research shows that Primo Maxx and glycine betaine had additive or synergistic ef - fects in maintaining higher-quality turf under prolonged drought stress. • In creeping bentgrass exposed to drought, ap - plying Primo Maxx before drought stress and glycine betaine during drought stress resulted in enhanced turf quality and leaf hydration. 080-089_July14_TechwellCuttingEdge copy.indd 83 6/17/14 2:32 PM

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