Golf Course Management

MAY 2014

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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86 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 05.14 Insecticide-resistant annual bluegrass weevil The annual bluegrass weevil (ABW) has been shown to develop resistance to a range of insecticides under commonly used man - agement regimes (that is, multiple applica- tions of synthetic insecticides per season). Currently, understanding of ABW insecti - cide resistance is restricted to adult weevils and pyrethroids, but feld observations sug - gest that several other insecticide classes may be affected, larvae may be resistant, and re - sistance level may differ among the differ- ent ABW stages. Our goal is to better un- derstand the degree and scope of insecticide resistance (different ABW stages, different insecticide modes of action) in ABW popula - tions. Using at least eight ABW populations (two susceptible, six resistant at various levels), we will establish the baseline susceptibility of ABW to commonly used insecticides and de - termine diagnostic doses to detect resistant populations in the feld. We will determine resistance and cross-resistance patterns and possible mechanisms; compare the effcacy of selected insecticides against ABW adults and larvae of susceptible and resistant pop - ulations; and develop a simple test so that researchers and practitioners can determine resistance levels to pyrethroids and other af - fected insecticides. Our results will form the base for developing optimal management programs for resistant and susceptible ABW populations that optimize the effcacy and longevity of available compounds, thereby reducing insecticide use and associated costs. —Albrecht Koppenhöfer, Ph.D. (koppenhofer@, and Olga Kostromytska, Ph.D., Rutgers University Effect of golf course turf management on water quality The Virginia Golf Course Superinten- dents Association, the Virginia Turfgrass Foundation and Virginia Tech, in coopera - tion with Virginia governmental agencies and private sector partners, have developed a guidance document, "Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Environmental Qual- ity on Virginia Golf Courses." This docu- ment provides a detailed description of BMP guidelines specifcally adapted for golf courses in Virginia. Ongoing ground-truth - ing is important to document the effective- ness of these guidelines through monitoring pre- and post-implementation water quality. Test sites are six Virginia golf courses within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with sample locations identifed to monitor water qual - ity fowing into and out of each golf course. These courses are currently or will be imple - menting the BMPs. Over the next two years, we will assess water quality before and after implementing two BMPs on two separate golf courses; use monitoring to determine the effects of standard turf maintenance prac - tices on water quality coming in and going out of six Bay Watershed golf courses; sur - vey Virginia superintendents to assess the adoption rate of water quality-specifc BMPs; and conduct soil testing to characterize the chemical and physical properties of soils next to streams on the monitored golf courses to determine any correlation between measured stream parameters and management of those sites. — Chantel Wilson; Erik Ervin, Ph.D. (ee-; and Stephen Schoenholtz, Ph.D., Virginia Tech Teresa Carson ( is GCM 's science editor. CUTTING EDGE Teresa Carson Photo by Ben McGraw Photo by Erik Ervin The research described in these summaries is funded in part by the Environmental Institute for Golf. 076-087_May14_TechwellCuttingEdge.indd 86 4/16/14 2:53 PM

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