Golf Course Management

MAY 2014

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84 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 05.14 sions in the plants. Tissue was removed from the lesions and observed under a compound microscope and under electron scanning microscopy. Visual observations, light mi - croscopy and electron microscopy yielded conclusive evidence of the pathogen infec - tion and symptoms. Clypei, ascocarp, asci and ascospore mor - phology and measurements corresponded ex- actly to those described for P llac ra pas- palicola (also known as P llac ra vaginata) (1,2,4-7,9-12). Healthy grass was infected with P. paspali - cola isolates, fulflling Koch's postulates and demonstrating the causal agent of the disease. Therefore, we propose that the causal agent of tar spot in seashore paspalum is P. paspalicola. To our knowledge this was the frst report of tar spot on seashore paspalum in Georgia. Acknowledgment The material in this article was adapted from Martinez-Espinoza, A.D., Martinez- Uribe, O. A., and Kim, D. 2012. Identifcation and characterization of tar spot on seashore paspalum in Georgia. (Abstr.) P topa logy 102(Suppl.):S4.76, and was also taken from the accompanying poster as presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting of The American Phy - topathological Society, Providence, R.I., Aug. 4-8, 2012. Literature cited 1. Bockus, W.W., R.L. Bowden, R.M. Hunger et al. 2010. Compendium of Wheat Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, Minn. 2. Dakshini, K.M.M., R.K. Tandon and K.G. Mukerji. 1970. A new species of Phyllachora. Mycologia 62:296-300. 3. Duncan, R.R., and R.N. Carrow. 2000. Seashore Paspalum—The Environmental Turfgrass. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J. 4. Hanlin-Silva, D.M.W., and R.T. Hanlin. 1998. The order Phyllachorales: Taxonomic review. Mycoscience 39:97-104. 5. Monteiro, F.T., B.S. Vieira and R.W. Barreto. 2003. Curvularia lunata and Phyllachora sp.: Two fungal pathogens of the grassy weed Hymenachne amplexi - caulis from Brazil. Australasian Plant Pathology 32:449-453. 6. Orton, C.R. 1944. Graminicolous species of Phyl - lachora in North America. Mycologia 36:18-53. 7. Parbery, D.G. 1967. Studies on Graminicolous Spe - cies of Phyllachora NCE in FCKL: A taxonomic mono- graph. Australian Journal of Botany 15:271-375. 8. Raymer, P.L., S.K. Braman, L.L. Burpee et al. 2008. Seashore paspalum: Breeding a turfgrass for the future. www.usga.org/turf/green_section_ record/2008/jan_feb/breeding_future_turfgrass.pdf 9. Rey, M.E., and H.M. Garnett. 1984. A physiological study of Panicum maximum infected by Phyllachora paspalicola. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2283- 2289. 10. Silva, D.M. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of the Phyllochorales and related genera. Ph.D. diss. Uni - versity of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 11. Smiley, R.W., P.H. Dernoeden and B.B. Clarke. 2005. Compendium of Turfgrass Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, Minn. 12. Ulloa, M., and R.T. Hanlin. 2012. Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology. APS Press, St. Paul, Minn. Alfredo Martinez-Espinoza, Ph.D. (amartine@uga.edu), is an associate professor in plant pathology at the University of Georgia-Griffn; Omar Martinez-Uribe is a student at the University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.; and Dae Kim is a stu - dent at Georgia State University, Atlanta. RESEARCH SAYS • Visual observations, light microscopy and elec- tronic microscope techniques yielded conclusive evidence of the pathogen infection and symptoms. • Fungal morphology and measurements cor - responded exactly to those described for Phyl- lachora paspalicola. • Healthy grass was infected with P. paspalicola isolates, demonstrating that P. paspalicola is the causal agent of tar spot in seashore paspalum. Figure 6. The reproductive spores (ascospores) of the tar spot fungus are seen breaking through the tissue of an infected seashore paspalum plant to infect other plants. Ascospores 076-087_May14_TechwellCuttingEdge.indd 84 4/16/14 2:53 PM

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