Golf Course Management

APR 2014

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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94 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 04.14 • This research examined the effects of cultural practices and timing of fertilization on large patch in zoysiagrass fairways. • Cultivation did not affect disease based on patch size, patch size increase or digital image analy - sis, and it did not affect volumetric soil content. • Fertilization in spring and fall was associated with slightly lower percentages of non-green turf at two of the locations on some rating dates. • Effects of spring and fall fertilization were not consistent from year to year or site to site, so applications should be approached with caution. RESEARCH SAYS not Olathe, in 2010 and 2011. Applications of nitrogen during spring and fall might have promoted more shoot re-growth within af - fected areas, thus masking the effects of dis- ease. Since effects were not consistent from year to year or site to site, spring or fall ap - plications should still be approached with caution. Fall fertility may interfere with other processes of hardening off for winter. Furthermore, it is important to note that the effects of very early fertility, such as at the very initial signs of green-up, may be differ - ent from what we observed. Our spring fertil- ity applications were made after the turf had already greened up signifcantly. Funding This work was funded by the United States Golf Association, the Kansas Turfgrass Foun - dation, the Kansas Golf Course Superinten- dents Association and the Heart of America Golf Course Superintendents Association. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank W.W. Bockus, C.R. Little and B.K. Sandercock at Kansas State University for their thoughtful contributions to K. Obasa's Ph.D. thesis as - sociated with this work. Literature cited 1. Bremer, D.J. 2003. Evaluation of microlysimeters used in turfgrass evapotranspiration studies using the dual-probe heat-pulse technique. Agronomy Journal 95:1625-1632. 2. Green, D.E. II, J.D. Fry, J.C. Pair and N.A. Tisserat. 1994. Infuence of cultural practices on large patch disease of zoysiagrass. HortScience 29:186-188. 3. Ham, J.M., and R.S. Senock. 1992. On the mea - surement of soil surface temperature. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56:370-377. 4. Karcher, D.E., and M.D. Richardson. 2005. Batch analysis of digital images to evaluate turfgrass char - acteristics. Crop Science 45:1536-1539. 5. Obasa K., J. Fry and M. Kennelly. 2012. Susceptibil - ity of zoysiagrass germplasm to large patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani. HortScience 47:1252-1256. 6. Obasa K., J. Fry, D. Bremer, R. St. John and M. Kennelly. 2013. Effect of cultivation and timing of nitrogen fertilization on large patch disease of zoysia - grass. Plant Disease 97:1075-1081. 7. Song, Y., J.M. Ham, M.B. Kirkham and G.J. Klui - tenberg. 1998. Measuring soil water content under turfgrass using the dual-probe heat-pulse technique. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Sci - ence 123:937-941. Kehinde Obasa is a postdoctoral research associate and Megan Kennelly ( is an associate pro - fessor in the department of plant pathology and Jack Fry and Dale Bremer are professors in the department of horti - culture, forestry and recreation resources at Kansas State University; Rodney St. John is an agronomist with Ryan Lawn & Tree in Overland Park, Kan. Summer cultivation and fertilization timing vs. large patch % non-green turf Manhattan Haysville Treatment Oct 25, 2010 June 1, 2011 † June 22, 2010 July 7, 2010 June 3, 2011 Whole plot Cultivated 47.6 ‡ 24.6 29.4 27.3 55.6 Noncultivated 47.7 28.6 27.2 18.6 63.9 Subplot Summer nitrogen 53.4 a 33.8 36.3 a 27.0 64.1 a Spring + fall nitrogen 41.9 b 19.3 20.6 b 18.8 55.4 b Interactions Cultivated, summer 30.9 ab Noncultivated, summer 36.7 a Cultivated, spring + fall 18.2 c Noncultivated, spring + fall 20.4 bc Note. Percent diseased turf was estimated using digital analysis of images. Each value represents the average of four inoculation foci per split plot, for a total of 16 images per treatment. † There was a signifcant interaction between fertility and cultivation in Manhattan on June 1, 2011, and therefore cultiva- tion × fertility data are shown only for that date. ‡ Within the whole plot, subplot or interactions groupings, values in a column followed by the same letters are not statisti- cally different. Table 2. Effect of summer cultivation and timing of fertilization on large patch symptoms in Manhattan and Haysville, Kan. Because there were no signifcant differences among treatments (whole plot, subplot or interactions) at the Olathe site in 2010 or 2011, the Olathe data are not shown. JobBoard2011_8_75X10_8125.indd 090-101_April14_TechwellCuttingEdge.indd 94 3/18/14 2:54 PM

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