Golf Course Management

APR 2014

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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92 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 04.14 dual-probe sensors (1,3,7) were installed in the Manhattan site during 2009 and 2010 to determine the effect of cultural practices on soil temperature, thatch temperature and soil moisture content. Experimental design The experiments were set up in a split- plot design, with cultivation vs. nonculti - vation as the main-plot factor with main plots 12 × 20 feet (3.6 × 6 meters). Fertility was the split-plot factor, with 12- × 10-foot (3.6- × 3-meter) plots. There were four in - oculation sites (described above) per split- plot. There were four blocks at each of the three locations. Inoculated patches were ap - parent starting in spring 2009, expanding over time. The cultural practices and fertil - ity regimes were initiated in summer 2008 and continued as shown in Table 1. Cultiva - tion included core-aerifcation, verticutting and sand topdressing. Fertility was applied in spring and fall as plain urea at a rate of 1 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet (4.88 grams/square meter) in spring and another 1 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet in fall. In Manhattan, each spring and fall applica - tion was further split into two applications of 0.5 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet (2.44 grams/square meter). Summer fertil - ity was applied all at once as 2 pounds nitro- gen/1,000 square feet (9.76 grams/square meter) as polymer-coated urea. Disease assessment Disease was assessed by measuring patch sizes when patches had distinct margins, and patch size increase (radial patch expansion in inches per week) was calculated. When patches became large (merged together) or had poorly defned margins, disease was as - sessed by digital image analysis (4) with modifcations (5,6). Patch symptoms within a 30- × 36-inch (76.20- × 91.44-centimeter) grid in the center of each plot were photo - graphed weekly and analyzed to estimate turf infested with large patch disease (percentage of diseased, or non-green, turf ), relative to healthy (green) turf. Results Microclimate Cultivation had no effect on 5-inch (12.7-centimeter) soil temperature, thatch temperature or water content during 2009 or 2010 (data not shown). Cultural practices and fertility, 2008-2011 Year Actions Manhattan Olathe Haysville 2008 spring fertilization April 28 & May 8 May 1 April 29 summer fertilization June 27 July 8 July 14 fall fertilization Sept 22 & Oct 23 Sept 24 Sept 25 cultivation June 27 Aug 8 Aug 14 2009 spring fertilization April 27 & May 28 April 30 May 4 summer fertilization June 23 June 24 June 26 fall fertilization Aug 26 & Sept 25 Aug 28 Sept 4 cultivation June 22 June 24 June 26 2010 spring fertilization April 20 & June 1 May 3 May 5 summer fertilization June 30 June 21 June 22 fall fertilization Sept 1 & Oct 4 Sept 16 Sept 15 cultivation July 8 June 21 June 22 2011 spring fertilization April 28 & May 27 April 26 April 27 summer fertilization June 6 June 2 June 3 Table 1. Dates of cultural practices and fertility at the three experimental locations in Kansas. Cultivation included core aerifcation, verticutting and sand topdressing. Spring and fall fertility was applied as urea at a total rate of 1 pound nitro - gen/1,000 square feet (4.88 grams/square meter) in spring and 1 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet in fall. In Manhattan, those applications were further split into two applications per season at 0.5 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet (2.44 grams/square meter). Summer fertility was applied once at 2 pounds nitrogen/1,000 square feet (9.76 grams/square meter) as polymer-coated urea. At each of the three research sites (Haysville, Manhattan and Olathe, Kan.), there were four blocks of plots. Inoculated patches frst became apparent in spring 2009. Photos by Ken Obasa 090-101_April14_TechwellCuttingEdge.indd 92 3/18/14 2:54 PM

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