Golf Course Management

APR 2014

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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04.14 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 97 saw. The profles were split into depth sec- tions based on visually determined soil ho- rizons, and one representative profle sample from each site was chosen for further analy - sis. For each horizon, the following measure- ments were made: pH in water, estimated organic matter by loss-on-ignition, and total iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxide by ci - trate-dithionite extraction. Results and discussion Properties of t e layers Cemented layers were observed in two general locations of the profles in this study (Table 2). The profles from Southeast 1, Southeast 2 (Figure 1), and Oceania (Figure 2) featured layers only at the sand/gravel in - terface of the putting greens. Profles from Northeast (Figure 3) and Midwest (Figure 4) featured layers both at the sand/gravel inter - face and at an interface nearer the surface. The layers located higher in the profle were gener - ally less cemented than those occurring at the sand/gravel interface, although they appeared to inhibit rooting depth nonetheless. In each profle, cemented layers were associated with textural boundaries where fne particles over - laid larger particles. Citrate-dithionite extractions confrmed that the layers from four of the fve sites were cemented primarily by iron-oxide minerals. The iron contents of the cemented layers were almost always greater than the soil di - rectly above, and contained more iron than other horizons in the soil profles. This sug - gests that the iron moved vertically through the profle and was redistributed to textural boundaries. The profle from Midwest was relatively low in iron compared to North - east and Oceania, which both had similar iron content but were lower than Southeast 1, which had the highest iron content. This shows that these layers can form in soils with a range of iron contents, making it diffcult to predict the risk of layering based on soil iron content alone. The layer in the South - east 2 profle was relatively low in iron and was instead cemented by manganese oxide minerals. Although the cemented layer from Southeast 1 was relatively high in iron, this layer also featured relatively high levels of manganese. These examples provide evi - dence that manganese can act as a cementing agent in these layers in addition to or in lieu of iron. Not surprisingly, each site featured an ac - Chemical properties of profles from fve sites Depth (inches) % OM Soil pH FeD (grams/kilogram) à MnD (grams/kilogram) à Midwest 0-1.5 1.88 6.8 0.53 cd 0.11 b 1.5-3.0 1.95 7.1 0.57 c 0.17 a 3.0-4.0 1.91 7.3 0.96 a 0.10 c 4.0-7.0 0.84 7.6 0.79 b 0.05 d 7.0-10.5 0.46 7.7 0.52 cd 0.03 e 10.5-14.0 0.47 7.8 0.54 cd 0.02 e 14.0-14.75 0.34 7.7 0.43 d 0.02 e 14.75-15.25 0.60 8.5 0.81 b 0.01 f Northeast 0-2 2.78 7.2 0.50 d 0.05 a 2-3.5 1.86 6.8 1.46 b 0.03 ab 3.5-4.5 1.44 6.6 1.23 bc 0.05 a 4.5-7.75 0.82 6.3 0.81 cd 0.01 bc 7.75-11 0.77 6.4 0.64 d <0.01 d 11-12.75 0.75 6.3 0.75 d <0.01 d 12.75-13.25 1.31 6.4 3.23 a 0.01 c Southeast 1 0-2 5.95 7.0 2.00 c 0.15 b 2-5 2.26 7.3 4.27 b 0.18 b 5-8 1.38 7.4 2.98 c 0.16 b 8-11 1.76 7.4 4.73 b 0.18 b 11-13.5 2.38 6.8 4.57 b 0.04 c 13.5-13.75 2.40 6.4 8.50 a 0.72 a Southeast 2 ¤ 28-11 0.10 6.1 0.08 b 0.03 c 11-13.5 0.02 6.1 0.09 b 0.02 d 13.5-14 0.06 6.2 0.12 ab 0.09 b 14-15 0.23 8.7 0.15 a 0.78 a Gravel ND // 9.8 ND ND Oceania 0-0.75 4.38 8.5 1.52 b 0.44 a 0.75-3 1.90 8.6 1.15 bc 0.29 a 3-6 0.48 8.6 0.87 cd 0.03 b 6-9.5 0.64 8.0 0.88 cd <0.01 c 9.5-13 0.76 6.7 0.66 d <0.01 c 13-14 0.69 5.4 0.89 cd <0.01 c 14-14.5 0.98 7.3 3.87 a 0.03 b Note. Numbers in bold indicate data for cemented layers. † OM, organic matter. ‡ Numbers within a column that are followed by different lowercase letters are signifcantly different from one another. § Site was in the midst of renovation and had removed the top 8 inches of the profle. // ND, not determined. Table 2. Chemical properties of profles from fve sites featuring cemented layers. 090-101_April14_TechwellCuttingEdge.indd 97 3/18/14 2:54 PM

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