Golf Course Management

OCT 2013

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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research Spring leaf tissue nitrogen Spring leaf tissue nitrogen (% by dry mass) 3.5 Primo Maxx + 0.61 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet 3 0 2.5 Full 2 Split 1.5 1 0.5 0 2010 2011 Figure 4. Mean spring leaf tissue nitrogen by fall treatment and year of study (pooled fall application dates). Treatment means with overlapping error bars are not signifcantly different. V v v The research says ➔ To maintain moderate tissue nitrogen levels and photosynthetic activity late in the season, complement soluble nitrogen with a plant growth regulator. ➔ Primo Maxx and fall nitrogen significantly improved spring density in the first year of the study. ➔ Late-fall application of Primo Maxx also suppressed growth in early spring and increased tissue nitrogen. ➔ Maintaining a regulated yet dense turfgrass canopy through the fall acclimation period may limit winter injury and accelerate spring recovery. 88 GCM October 2013 Acknowledgments The authors thank The Pennsylvania Turfgrass Council for their fnancial support of this research, and Brad Bartlett, Sarah Fishel and Derek Pruyne for their technical assistance. Literature cited 1. Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 2. Bell, G.E., B.M. Howell, G.V. Johnson et al. 2004. Optical sensing of turfgrass chlorophyll content and tissue nitrogen. HortScience 39:1130-1132. 3. Joern, A., and S. Mole. 2005. The plant stress hypothesis and variable responses by blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis) to water, mineral nutrition, and insect herbivory. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31:2069-2090. 4. Kreuser, W.C., and D.J. Soldat. 2012. Frequent trinexapacethyl applications reduce nitrogen requirements of creeping bentgrass golf putting greens. Crop Science 52:1348-1357. 5. Kussow, W.R. 1992. Late season nitrogen fertilization. Pages 135-156. In: Proceedings 62nd Annual Michigan Turfgrass Conference, Lansing, Mich. Jan. 20-22, 1992. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. 6. Lickfeldt, D.W., D.S. Gardner, B.E. Branham and T.B. Voigt. 2001. Implications of repeated trinexapac-ethyl applications on Kentucky bluegrass. Agronomy Journal 93:1164-1168. 7. McCullough, P.E., H. Liu, L.B. McCarty et al. 2006. Bermudagrass putting green growth, color, and nutrient partitioning infuenced by nitrogen and trinexapac-ethyl. Crop Science 46:1515-1525. 8. Rossi, F.S., and E.J. Buelow. 1997. Exploring the use of plant growth regulators to reduce winter injury on annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.). USGA Green Section Record 35(6):12-15. 9. Schmidt, J.P., A.E. Dellinger and D.B. Beegle. 2009. Nitrogen recommendations for corn: An on-the-go sensor compared with current recommendation methods. Agronomy Journal 101:916-924. 10. Steinke, K., and J.C. Stier. 2004. Infuence of trinexapacethyl on cold tolerance and nonstructural carbohydrates of shaded supina bluegrass. Acta Horticulturae 661:207-215. 11. Walker, K.S., C.A. Bigelow, D. Smith et al. 2007. Aboveground responses of cool-season lawn species to nitrogen rates and application timings. Crop Science 47:1225-1236. 12. Webster, D.E., and J.S. Ebdon. 2005. Effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on perennial ryegrass cold tolerance during deacclimation in late winter and early spring. HortScience 40:842-849. 13. Wehner, D.J., J.E. Haley and D.L. Martin. 1988. Late fall fertilization of Kentucky bluegrass. Agronomy Journal 80:466-471. 14. Wherley, B., and T.R. Sinclair. 2009. Growth and evapotransporation response of two turfgrass species to nitrogen and trinexapac-ethyl. HortScience 44:2053-2057. GCM Chase Rogan was a graduate student conducting this research in fulfllment of his M.S. degree requirements at Penn State University. He is currently GCSAA's feld staff representative for the Mid-Atlantic region. Maxim J. Schlossberg (mjs38@ is an associate professor of turfgrass nutrition and soil fertility in the Center for Turfgrass Science at Penn State University, University Park, Pa.

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