Golf Course Management

SEP 2013

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research season grasses included in this study could not be maintained at an acceptable quality level in a transition zone climate when irrigated with saline water regardless of irrigation system. Salinity levels in our irrigation water were either higher or matched those found in recycled water currently used in the Southwest to irrigate turf areas. Based on these and earlier fndings, with the exception of tall fescue, warm-season grasses appear to be the logical choice for turf areas irrigated with saline water from either a drip or a sprinkler system in transitional semiarid or arid climate zones. Funding Financial support of the study was provided by New Mexico State University's Agricultural Experiment Station, Offce for Facilities and Services, and Water Resources Research Institute; the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture under Agreement no. 200534461-15661 and 200545049-03209; Southwest Turfgrass Association; and Seeds West Inc. The authors are also grateful for the donations from Helena Chemical Co., Precision Porous Pipe, Pure Seed Testing and The Scotts Co. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful for the help and support of Bruce Erhard, golf course superintendent at New Mexico State University's golf course. A longer version of this paper was published as "Soil salinity and quality of sprinkler- and drip-irrigated cool-season turfgrasses" by Elena Sevostianova, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave, Douglas Karcher and Bernd Maier in Agronomy Journal 103:1503-1513 (2011). It was posted online on Aug. 8, 2011, and is available freely online through the author-supported open access option (doi:10.2134/agronj2011.0162). Literature cited 1. Allen, R.G., I.A. Walter, R.L. Elliott et al. 2005. The ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Va. 2. Alshammary, S.F., Y.L. Qian and S.J. Wallner. 2004. Growth response of four turfgrasses species to salinity. Agricultural Water Management 66:97-111. doi:10.1016/ wat.2003.11.002 3. Ayers, R.S., and D.W. Westcot. 1985. Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29 (Rev. 1). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 4. Carrow, R.N., and R.R. Duncan. 1998. Salt-Affected Turfgrass Sites: Assessment and Management. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, Mich. 5. Choi, C.Y., and E.M. Suarez-Rey. 2004. Subsurface drip irrigation for bermudagrass with reclaimed water. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 47:19431951. 6. Christians, N.E. 2007. Fundamentals of Turfgrass Manage- ment. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J. 7. Gibeault, V.A., J.L. Meyer, V.B. Youngner and S.T. Cockerham. 1985. Irrigation of turfgrass below replacement of evapotranspiration as a means of water conservation: Performance of commonly used turfgrasses. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 7:347-356. 8. Harivandi, M.A., J.D. Butler and L. Wu. 1992. Salinity and turfgrass culture. Page 225. In: D.V. Waddington et al., eds. Turfgrass. Agronomy Monograph 32. ASA, CSSA and SSSA, Madison, Wis. 9. Jiang, Y., and B. Huang. 2001. Physiological responses to heat stress alone or in combination with drought: A comparison between tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. HortScience 36:682-686. 10. Lunt, O.R., V.B. Youngner and J.J. Oertli. 1961. Salinity tolerance of fve turfgrass varieties. Agronomy Journal 53:247249. doi:10.2134/agronj1961.00021962005300040012x 11. McCarty, L.B. 2009. Best golf course management practices. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. 12. Nabati, D.A., R.E. Schmidt and D.J. Parrish. 1994. Alleviation of salinity stress in Kentucky bluegrass by plant growth regulators and iron. Crop Science 34:198-202. doi:10.2135/ cropsci1994.0011183X003400010035x 13. Qian, Y.L., J. Fry and W. Upham. 1997. Rooting and drought avoidance of warm-season turfgrasses and tall fescue in Kansas. Crop Science 37:905-910. doi:10. 2135/cropsci1 997.0011183X003700030034x 14. Schiavon, M., B. Leinauer, E. Sevostianova and F. Rimi. 2010. Cool season turfgrass performance under drip irrigation in an arid climate. Pages 188-190. In: A. Zuin, ed. Proceedings of the 2nd European Turfgrass Society Conference, Angers, April 11-14, 2010. European Turfgrass Society, Angers, France. 15. Sevostianova, E.B., B. Leinauer, R. Sallenave et al. 2011. Soil salinity and quality of sprinkler and drip irrigated warm-season turfgrasses. Agronomy Journal 103:1773-1784. 16. Suplick-Ploense, M.R., Y.L. Qian and J.C. Read. 2002. Relative NaCl tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass, Texas bluegrass, and their hybrids. Crop Science 42:2025-2030. doi:10.2135/cropsci2002.2025 17. U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. USDA Handbook 60. U.S. Government Printing Offce, Washington, D.C. GCM E. Sevostianova is a research associate and B. Leinauer ( is a professor and turfgrass Extension specialist in the department of Extension plant sciences and natural resources at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, N.M. V v v The research says ➔ Changes in soil EC, sodium content and SAR reflected seasonal changes in irrigation and natural precipitation; EC and sodium values were highest in June 2006 on drip-irrigated plots at depths of 0-4 inches. ➔ Electrical conductivity was higher in drip-irrigated than sprinkler-irrigated plots on four of the six sampling dates. ➔ Irrigation type and water quality did not affect EC and sodium at soil depths of 20 to 24 inches. ➔ For four of the seven grasses tested, EC, sodium or SAR values showed a significant but weak relationship with turf quality, indicating that more than one stressor affected visual ratings. ➔ With the exception of tall fescue, the cool-season grasses in this study could not be maintained at an acceptable quality level in a transition zone climate when irrigated with saline water regardless of the irrigation system. September 2013 GCM 89

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