Golf Course Management

SEP 2013

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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research EC and SAR 0-4 inches Sprinkler B Drip 4-8 inches A 4-8 inches 0-4 inches Electrical conductivity (decisiemens/meter) A B Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) Figure 2. Electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in soil at depths of 0-4 inches and 4-8 inches. Data are pooled over three water qualities (potable, moderately saline and saline) and six sampling dates. Letters denote the differences in EC and SAR between the two irrigation systems depths separately for each sampling depth. Sodium content, 2005-2007 A Sprinkler 0-4 inches A Drip 0-4 inches B A BC Drip 4-8 inches C C November 2007 June 2007 November 2006 BB June 2006 June 2005 B November 2005 Sodium Sprinkler 4-8 inches BC B Figure 3. Sodium content in soil depths of 0-4 inches and 4-8 inches, irrigated from a subsurface drip or sprinkler system. Data are pooled over three water qualities (potable, moderately saline and saline). Letters denote the differences in sodium content between the two irrigation systems and two depths separately for each sampling date. 80 GCM September 2013 amounts of precipitation during spring and summer 2007 resulted in lower peaks of EC, sodium and SAR in summer 2007, and none of the three measured parameters differed over time on plots irrigated with potable or moderately saline water. Electrical conductivity and SAR values. When EC and SAR data were pooled over all water qualities and depths but analyzed separately for sampling dates and irrigation types, EC was highest in drip-irrigated plots on four of the six sampling dates. Type of irrigation system did not affect EC in June 2005 or November 2006. Sodium adsorption ratio values were higher in sprinkler-irrigated plots than drip-irrigated plots on the frst sampling date but did not differ between the two irrigation systems from November 2005 to November 2007. When data were averaged over all water qualities and sampling dates and analyzed separately for the two depths and irrigation systems, EC was highest at depths of 0-4 inches under drip irrigation compared to sprinkler irrigation. At a depth of 4-8 inches, EC did not differ between sprinkler- and drip-irrigated plots (Figure 2). In contrast, the type of irrigation system did not affect SAR at 0-4 inches, but at depths of 4-8 inches, values were higher on sprinkler-irrigated plots than on drip-irrigated plots (Figure 2). Sodium content. Water quality and type of irrigation system affected sodium content in the top 8 inches of the root zone differently than for SAR and EC (Figure 3). When sodium data were pooled over all three water qualities and analyzed separately for root-zone depths, irrigation systems and sampling dates, sodium values were highest in drip-irrigated plots at 0-4 inches in June and November 2005 and in June 2006. Sodium levels in drip-irrigated plots at depths of 4-8 inches were either equal (November 2005 and June 2006) or lower (June 2005) than those observed in sprinkler-irrigated plots. Soil depth did not affect sodium content in sprinkler-irrigated plots throughout the research period or in plots irrigated with a drip system from November 2006 to November 2007. Root-zone salinity at depths of 20-24 inches EC and sodium content. Changes in EC and sodium values at depths of 20-24 inches followed the same irrigation and precipitation pattern as changes at depths of 0-8 inches. Electrical conductivity and sodium was highest in June 2005 and 2006 and dropped to lower levels in November of both years. Salinity levels (EC and sodium) stayed consistently low from November 2006 to November 2007. When EC and sodium values were pooled over irrigation systems and sampling

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