Golf Course Management

JUL 2013

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Research in progress ticide. Nematicide effcacy was tested on bermudagrass greens at two golf courses in the Houston area and on the campus of Texas A&M University. Trial 1 was in Houston on Tifway 419 infested with Belonolaimus species (sting nematode); trials 2 and 3 were in Sugar Land, Texas, on MiniVerde infested with Meloidogyne species (root-knot nematode); and trial 4 was at Texas A&M on TifEagle infested with root-knot nematodes. Silver nanoparticles were chemically synthesized in the lab, agitated by hand and applied at 2 gallons of diluted nematicide spray/1,000 square feet. Soil samples were tested to determine nematode populations. In 2011 feld trials, one or two applications of silver nanoparticles in spring and summer did not decrease nematode populations in comparison to the control. Applications of silver nanoparticles in November signifcantly reduced nematode populations and improved turf quality without noticeable phytotoxicity to bermudagrass. Nematode populations were not uniformly distributed, and they changed by season and location. Nematode populations were not directly correlated with turf quality. — Young-Ki Jo, Ph.D. (ykjo@ cutting edge Photo courtesy of Young-Ki Jo; J.L. Starr, Ph.D.; and Youjun Deng, Ph.D., Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas Photo courtesy of W.T. Crow IPM for sting nematodes on bermudagrass In an effort to develop an IPM program for control of sting nematodes on bermudagrass, we are attempting to identify and develop bermudagrass cultivars that are tolerant of sting nematodes and to determine whether resistant cultivars in combination with a biopesticide program will adequately manage sting nematodes without conventional pesticides. Five bermudagrasses (Tifway, TifSport, Celebration and two experimentals, BA 132 and PI 291590) were established and then tested under four nematicide regimes (no nematicide; annual Curfew Soil Fumigant application; calendar-based IPM program with rotations of the biological products Nortica, MustGro Invest or Multiguard Protect; or a monitoring-based IPM program in which the same biological products were applied on an as-needed basis). In 2012, the frst year of a multi-year experiment, BA 132 and Celebration had the best establishment rate, and both IPM programs showed slight improvements in turf health compared to the untreated control. — William Crow, Ph.D. (, and Kevin Kenworthy, Ph.D., University of Florida Silver nanoparticles for nematode control Silver nanoparticle compounds have been developed for use as an environmentally friendly nema- A new system for nematode control The objectives of this research are (1) to develop methods for visualizing the ingestion of micronsize biological molecules by sting nematodes and to determine their distribution within the body of the sting nematode, and (2) to develop micron-size biological molecules to deliver biological control agent complexes to control sting nematodes in vitro and in vivo. Ingestion of micron-size molecules loaded with fuorescent dye resulted in successful oral delivery of chemicals to the intestines of root-knot and spiral nematodes. We evaluated the effects of four concentrations of two nematicides, Larvin and Oxamyl, delivered within a micron-size molecule on root-knot nematodes in vitro. Larvin was eliminated from the study because it required higher concentrations to kill the larvae. Oxamyl at 200 and 100 micrograms/ milliliter achieved 100% mortality of J2 root-knot nematode larvae. In another experiment, 5 micrograms/milliliter of Avid, an insecticide labled for nematode control on greens, was the minimum concentration that reduced gall formation on roots of tomato plants infested with root-knot nematodes. — The research described in these summaries is funded in part by USGA. Hanafy Fouly, Ph.D. (, ADRT, LLC and Ken Watkin, Ph.D., University of Illinois GCM Teresa Carson ( is GCM's science editor. Teresa Carson July 2013 GCM 93

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