Golf Course Management

JUL 2013

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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research V v v The research says ➔ Results from this study confirm multiple paclobutrazol (Trimmit, TGR, Turf Enhancer) applications as the most effective option currently labeled for managing annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass greens in the southeastern U.S. ➔ Methiozolin, which is not yet registered for use in the U.S., appears to be extremely effective for reducing annual bluegrass while maintaining acceptable safety on creeping bentgrass greens ➔ Rates and timings of other products in the study may need to be adjusted to achieve annual bluegrass control and selectivity in creeping bentgrass. 92 GCM July 2013 rently labeled for managing annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass putting greens in the southeastern United States. Methiozolin appears to be extremely effective for reducing annual bluegrass populations while maintaining acceptable safety on creeping bentgrass putting greens. If methiozolin were registered in the United States, low rates (≤32 ounces/ acre, 2.3 liters/hectare) applied multiple times (6+) in the fall and spring would be most effective for slow removal of annual bluegrass. This herbicide should be used judiciously to maintain its effectiveness for annual bluegrass control as resistance has developed to almost all modes of action used to control annual bluegrass. Other treatments evaluated in this study did not provide annual bluegrass control or seedhead suppression comparable to that achieved by methiozolin. Rates and timings of the products used in these treatments may need to be adjusted to achieve annual bluegrass control and selectivity in creeping bentgrass. Future research should continue to evaluate all of these products and others to fnd optimal rates and timings for annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass greens. Acknowledgments We thank 24-year GCSAA member Don Garrett, superintendent at Walker Golf Course at Clemson University, and 14-year GCSAA member Tom Grundy, superintendent at Cross Creek Plantation, for accommodating and assisting in this research project. Literature cited 1. Askew, S., and S.J. Koo. 2012. Annual bluegrass control on golf putting greens with spring applications of methiozolin. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society 66:94. Online. www.newss.org/proceed ings/proceedings_2012.pdf (verifed June 4, 2013). 2. Brosnan, J.T., and G.K. Breeden. 2012. Methiozolin programs for annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass putting greens in Tennesee. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society 66:93. Online. www.newss.org/proceedings/proceedings_2012.pdf (verifed June 4, 2013). 3. Brosnan, J.T., S. Calvache, G.K. Breeden and J.C. Sorochan. 2013. Rooting depth, soil type, and application rate effects on creeping bentgrass injury with amicarbazone and methiozolin. Crop Science 53:655-659. 4. Christians, N.E. 1996. A historical perspective of annual bluegrass control. Golf Course Management 64(11):49-57. 5. Dayan, F.E., M. Trindade and E.D. Velini. 2009. Amicarbazone, a new photosystem II inhibitor. Weed Science 57:579583. 6. Flessner, M.L., G.R. Wehtje and J.S. McElroy. 2013. Methiozolin absorption and translocation in annual bluegrass (Poa annua). Weed Science 61:201-208. 7. Grossman, K., J. Hutzler, S. Tresch, et al. 2012. On the mode of action of the herbicides cinmethylin and 5-benzyloxymethyl-1, 2-isoxazolines: putative inhibitors of plant tyrosine aminotransferase. Pest Management Science 68:482-492. 8. Johnson, B.J., and T.R. Murphy. 1995. Effect of paclobutrazol and furprimidol on suppression of Poa annua spp. reptans in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) greens. Weed Technology 9:182-186. 9. Kageyama, M.E., L.R. Widell, D.G. Cotton and G.R. McVey. 1989. Annual bluegrass to bentgrass conversion with a turf growth retardant (TGR). Proceedings of the International Turf Research Conference 6:387-390. 10. Lee, J.N., S.J. Koo, K.H. Hwang et al. 2007. Mode of action of a new isoxazoline compound. Proceedings of the Asian Pacifc Weed Science Society Conference 21:591-601. 11. McCarty, L.B. 2011. Best Golf Course Management Practices, 3rd ed. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. 12. McCullough, P.E., D.G. de Barreda and J. Yu. 2013. Selectivity of methiozolin for annual bluegrass (Poa annua) control in creeping bentgrass as infuenced by temperature and application timing. Weed Science 61:209-216. 13. McCullough, P.E., S.E. Hart, D. Weisenberger and Z.J. Reicher. 2010. Amicarbazone effcacy on annual bluegrass and safety on cool-season turfgrasses. Weed Technology 24:461-470. 14. Perry, D.H., J.S. McElroy and R.H. Walker. 2009. The infuence of amicarbazone on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) photochemical effciency. Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society 62:386. Online. www.swss.ws/ NewWebDesign/Proceedings/Archives/2009%20Proceed ings-SWSS.pdf (verifed June 4, 2013). 15. Venner, K.A., S. Askew and S.J. Koo. 2012. Effects of methiozolin rates on creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass root growth. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society 66:14. Online. www. newss.org/proceedings/proceedings_2012.pdf (verifed June 4, 2013). 16. Warren, L.S., F.H. Yelverton and T.W. Gannon. 2009. The effect of various rates and timings of amicarbazone on bentgrass cultivar tolerance and annual bluegrass control. Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society 62:387. Online. www.swss. ws/NewWebDesign/Proceedings/Archives/2009%20Proceed ings-SWSS.pdf (verifed June 4, 2013). GCM Robert B. Cross is a graduate student, Lambert B. McCarty (bmccrty@clemson.edu) is a professor and Alan G. Estes is a turfgrass research technician in the school of agriculture, forestry and environmental sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, S.C.

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