Golf Course Management

JUL 2013

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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research throughout the fall and spring to suppress annual bluegrass growth and seedhead production. Two new herbicides have recently generated interest for their potential annual bluegrass control. Xonerate (amicarbazone, Arysta LifeScience Corp.) is a triazolinone herbicide that inhibits photosynthesis by disrupting electron fow at photosystem II (5). It is currently labeled for annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass tees and fairways, but not in putting greens. Methiozolin (proposed trade name PoaCure) is a new isoxazoline compound from Moghu Research Center in South Korea with proposed modes of action being inhibition of cell-wall biosynthesis and/or inhibition of tyrosine aminotransferase (7,10). Regardless, this is a new mode of action for annual bluegrass control in turfgrass. Methiozolin is currently labeled in several Asian countries for annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass putting greens. It has not been registered for use in the United States, but U.S. registration is expected in 2015. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various herbicide and plant growth regulator treatment programs for annual bluegrass control and seedhead suppression, including several recently developed herbicides, and to determine their safety for use on creeping bentgrass putting greens. Materials and methods From 2010 to 2013, several studies were conducted on creeping bentgrass greens built to USGA recommendations in order to analyze multiple herbicides and plant growth regulators for annual bluegrass control. Treatments were applied at Walker Golf Course at Clemson University, Clemson, S.C., from fall 2010 to spring 2012 on Crenshaw creeping bentgrass and at Cross Creek Plantation, Seneca, S.C., from fall 2011 to spring 2013 on L-93 creeping bentgrass. The same treatments were applied to the same plot area at each site during the two-year study. All treatments were applied using a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer calibrated to deliver 20 gallons/acre (187 liters/hectare) through 8003 fat-fan nozzles. Methiozolin treatments were sprayed at one-third of the herbicide rate three times to achieve the recommended spray volume of 60 gallons/acre (561 liters/hectare). Treatment programs, active ingredients, rates and timings are presented in Table 1. Throughout the studies, sites were maintained by the golf course maintenance staffs to normal putting green standards. Greens were mowed daily at 0.125 inch (0.32 centimeter) with irriga- The research sites used in the studies for annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass greens were at Walker GC (top) and Cross Creek Plantation (bottom). tion applied as needed to prevent wilt. Study sites received 6 pounds nitrogen/1,000 square feet (29 grams nitrogen/square meter) yearly and were treated with fungicides as needed to prevent disease pressure. Plots at both sites contained more than 50% annual bluegrass density at the initiation of the studies, and more than 80% of these populations were determined to be perennial biotypes (visual observation). Data collected Subsequent performance ratings were recorded monthly from trial initiation until late spring, July 2013 GCM 87

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