Golf Course Management

JUL 2013

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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research Pre-emergence herbicides Pre-emergence herbicides are often applied to turfgrass stands in early spring to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds (19). However, certain pre-emergence herbicides may have a negative impact on the growth of bermudagrass turf (9). The use of dinitroaniline (DNA) herbicides, such as prodiamine and pendimethalin, may cause abnormal swelling of turfgrass root tips ("clubbed-roots"), stunting of lateral root growth and/or severely pruned roots when healthy tissue comes into contact with the chemical barrier created in the upper soil profle (9,13). Other researchers (10) have observed noticeable reductions in growth and abnormal root development in bermudagrass plants treated with pendimethalin, prodiamine and dithiopyr. The dinitroaniline herbicide family exhibits low water solubility and readily binds to soil particles, so these chemistries tend to remain near the soil surface and do not leach through the soil profle (10). Therefore, the chemical barrier may remain intact for several weeks to months, until soil microorganisms and other environmental factors degrade these herbicides over time (4). As a result, using certain preemergence herbicides may interfere with bermudagrass recovery in the spring and summer from damage caused by winter desiccation, heavy traf- fc or disease (2). In spring, turfgrass managers often change their focus from spring dead spot control to bermudagrass recovery from disease symptoms. Turf in the center of disease patches is necrotic, so recovery requires encroachment of bermudagrass stolons from surrounding, healthy plants (18). The presence of pre-emergence herbicides in the soil profle may inhibit the rooting of bermudagrass stolons, prolonging disease symptoms and recovery. Though research has been conducted to quantify the effect of pre-emergence herbicide applications on bermudagrass recovery from divot injury (5) and wear/traffc (2), no research has been conducted to determine the effect of pre-emergence herbicides on bermudagrass recovery from spring dead spot disease. Therefore, the objective of our research was to determine foliar phytotoxicity of bermudagrass in response to preemergence herbicide applications and evaluate the effect of spring pre-emergence herbicides on the recovery of a bermudagrass fairway from spring dead spot disease symptoms. Evaluating bermudagrass recovery Field experiments were conducted during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Hillcrest Country Club in Lubbock, Texas, on an Arch Field experiments were conducted at Hillcrest CC in Lubbock, Texas, on a Tifway fairway with a history of spring dead spot infestation. Photos by Gerald Henry July 2013 GCM 81

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