Golf Course Management

JUN 2013

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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research EC, sodium and SAR Turfgrass quality in spring, summer and fall in 2005, 2006 and 2007 Potable Moderately saline Saline Electrical Conductivity (decisiemens/meter) 3.5 A 3 2005 A A 2006 2.5 2 Cultivar A 1.5 2007 Mean Spring A Drip † Sprinkler Drip Sprinkler Drip Sprinkler B B 3.4ef 4.3ab 4.2bc 3.7cd 3.9ab 3.9de A138 B De Anza B B C 0.5 0 3.9c 2.8e 3.2f 3.3e 3.7e 3.4e 3.4d 3.3g DT16 1 B 4.0c 3.9de 4.6a 4.6a 4.1b 3.8bc 4.2c 1000 Princess 77 Sodium (ppm) A A 400 A 300 100 A A 200 B B B B B B 4.1cd 4.0ab 4.0cd 4.0c 3.5ef 3.6de 3.8de 3.7cd 3.6cd 3.7f 5.9aA 5.4aB 4.1bc 4.5ab 4.4a 4.1ab 4.7a 4.9b 4.8b 3.9bcd 4.4ab 4.2ab 4.3a 4.4b 3.9c 3.8de 3.7de 3.7de 3.6de 3.8bcd 3.7ef A 14 10 B A A A 8 B B June 2007 Nov 2007 C June 2005 B Nov 2005 C June 2006 C Nov 2006 4.9e 5.9d 6.1d 5.8e 6.0e 5.7e 4.8eA 5.8dB 6.6cdA 6.4cdB 7.4bcA 5.8de 5.5c 5.7d 6.3cd 6.3d 5.9de 5.9e 5.9de Princess 77 7.2bc 6.7c 6.9bc 7.9a 7.7bc 7.2b 5.4cB 6.7cA 6.8bcB 7.2bA 7.3bB 7.8bA 6.9c NuMex Sahara 5.3c 5.2de 5.8d 6.3d 6.2cdeB 7.2cdA 6.0d Sea Spray 8.3a 8.1a 7.5ab 7.9a 6.7bcB 7.7bA 7.7a SeaDwarf 7.5b 7.8ab 7.9a 8.2a 7.9a 8.5a 8.0a Transcontinental Figure 4. Electrical conductivity (EC, decisiemens/meter), sodium content (ppm) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in soil at depths of 20-24 inches (50-60 centimeters) irrigated with saline, moderately saline or potable water. Data are pooled over two irrigation systems (subsurface drip and sprinkler). Letters denote the differences in EC, sodium and SAR among the three water qualities separately for each sampling date. 7.0b Riviera C rately for each sampling date and pooled over cultivars, the type of irrigation system did not signifcantly affect quality on any of the nine sampling dates. Data were subsequently pooled over irrigation systems and water qualities. Turf quality data were also pooled over water qualities and are shown separately for each cultivar and irrigation system on each sampling date (Table 2). For all three years, turfgrass quality was lowest in spring, likely because the winter dormancy of the warm-season grasses resulted in loss of color. During the three years of the study, summer and fall turfgrass quality equaled or exceeded the minimum acceptable quality of 6.0 when ratings were pooled over water quality, irrigation systems and cultivars. No clear trend could be observed in spring turf quality when irrigation systems were compared. In 2005, Sea Spray showed higher quality on dripirrigated plots than on sprinkler-irrigated ones. In contrast, Riviera had higher ratings on sprinklerirrigated plots than on drip-irrigated plots in both 2005 and 2006 (Table 2). For all other grasses, type of irrigation system did not affect spring quality. 5.3c 3.8dB DT16 B A 6 B A138 De Anza A A 12 SAR 3.9bc 4.1b Summer 16 0 C 3.9bc A 18 2 B C 0 20 4 A 4.1cd 4.6aA SeaDwarf A A 500 3.6de 3.8cdB Transcontinental 600 4.4bc 4.1cdA Sea Spray 700 3.4dB NuMex Sahara A 800 4.5b Riviera 900 5.5c 5.3de 6.2cd 6.3d 6.7c 6.9d 6.1d Fall A138 4.2e 4.2d 6.0e 5.7e 5.0e 5.2e 5.0f De Anza 4.8dB 5.8bcA 6.3deB 7cdA 5.8bcdB 6.6bcA 6.0e DT16 4.8d 4.6d 6.3de 5.7e 5.4de 5.1e 5.3f Princess 77 6.7b 6.1b 7.4bc 7.3bc 6.8a 6.7bc 6.8c Riviera 6.2bc 6.1bc 7.4b 7.0cd 6.0bc 6.4c 6.5d NuMex Sahara 5.6c 5.5c 6.3de 6.7d 5.6cd 5.9d 5.9e Sea Spray 7.7a 7.6a 7.9ab 7.8b 6.1b 6.9b 7.3b SeaDwarf 7.6a 7.6a 8.3a 8.8a 6.9a 7.4a 7.8a Transcontinental 5.7c 5.6bc 6.8cd 6.6d 5.7bcd 5.9d 6.0e † Values followed by the same letter are not signifcantly different from one another. Lowercase letters denote differences between cultivars separately for each season (in columns); uppercase letters denote differences between drip and sprinkler irrigation separately for each cultivar and year. Table 2. Quality (from 1 = worst to 9 = best) of nine turfgrasses during spring, summer and fall in 2005, 2006 and 2007. Data are pooled over three water qualities (potable, moderately saline and saline) and values represent an average of nine readings (three water qualities and three replications). Whether or not drip irrigation affected summer quality appeared to depend on the cultivar and on how long the drip irrigation had been in use. In 2007, four years after the installation of the system, four of the nine drip-irrigated grasses June 2013 GCM 85

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