Golf Course Management

APR 2013

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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research Bloom sequence Mix Common name Scientific name Blooms start Blooms end Butterfly Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta 6/6/2012 7/23/2012 Butterfly Culver's root Veronicastrum virginicum 9/24/2012 10/15/2012 8/13/2012 10/15/2012 Butterfly Gayfeather Liatris spicata Butterfly Hoary vervain Verbena stricta Butterfly Illinois bundleflower Desmanthus illinoensis Butterfly Nodding pink onion Allium cernuum Butterfly Purple prairie clover Dalea purpurea Butterfly Purpletop verbena Verbena bonariensis 8/6/2012 10/15/2012 Butterfly Rigid goldenrod Solidago rigida 9/24/2012 10/29/2012 8/6/2012 9/24/2012 Butterfly Wild senna Cassia hebecarpa Butterfly, Complex Butterfly milkweed Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly, Complex Golden Alexander Zizia aurea Butterfly, Complex Lavender hyssop Agastache foeniculum Butterfly, Complex Rattlesnake master Eryngium yuccifolium Butterfly, Complex, Simple Lance-leaved coreopsis Coreopsis lanceolata 5/7/2012 10/15/2012 Butterfly, Complex, Simple Purple coneflower Echinacea purpurea 8/6/2012 9/24/2012 6/12/2012 9/17/2012 6/6/2012 10/15/2012 Complex, Simple Bergamot Monarda fistulosa Complex, Simple Eastern columbine Aquilegia canadensis Complex, Simple New England aster Symphyotrichum novae-angliae Complex, Simple Ohio spiderwort Tradescantia ohiensis Complex, Simple Prairie coneflower Ratibida columnifera 6/6/2012 7/2/2012 Complex, Simple Sweet black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia subtomentosa 8/6/2012 10/8/2012 Complex Annual gaillardia Gaillardia pulchella Complex Plains coreopsis Coreopsis tinctoria 5/20/2012 9/24/2012 6/6/2012 9/24/2012 Complex Smooth penstemon Penstemon digitalis Complex Tennessee purple coneflower Echinacea tennesseensis Complex Wild sunflower Helianthus annuus Table 1. Bloom sequence of wildfowers planted in naturalized areas of golf courses to attract pollinators. fower species are attractive to particular types of pollinators. For the initial evaluations, we collected 25 pollinators from each wildfower species at each site during the plant's main blooming period. The specimens of bees and other insects are currently being identifed to genus or species to obtain hard data on the diversity of pollinators that are attracted by particular species and blends of wildfowers. Preliminary ļ¬ndings Pollinators were collected from the research plots to determine population size. Photo by Daniel Potter 102 GCM April 2013 Because of the harsh weather conditions in summer 2012, including record-setting temperatures and a month-long drought, some Operation Pollinator plots were set back after their initial spring bloom period (Table 1). Bloom coverage,

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