Golf Course Management

JUN 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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74 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 06.19 and by 9.9 times in the 18+-year group; it in- creased chloride by 1.5 times in the 10-year group and by 1.3 times in the 18+-year group. Kentucky bluegrass shoots irrigated with ef- fluent water for 18+ years had 3.5 times the boron concentration and 16% lower potas- sium concentration than Kentucky bluegrass shoots irrigated with surface water. •ere was a negative linear relationship between turf quality and sodium concentra- tion in the shoots (Figure 1). Soil SAR at a depth of 0 to 8 inches (0 to 20 centimeters) was highly associated with Kentucky blue- grass shoot sodium (Figure 2). Sodium accu- mulation in the shoots was the leading plant variable causing the decline of turf quality under effluent water irrigation. •erefore, it is reasonable to believe that water treatment and management practices that can reduce soil SAR and sodium concentration in Ken- tucky bluegrass shoots would improve turf quality and plant health. Acknowledgments •is research was previously published as "Mineral composition of Kentucky bluegrass under recycled water irrigation on golf courses" in HortScience, 54(2):357-361(2019). https:// doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13650-18 Yaling Qian (yaling.qian@colostate.edu) is a professor in the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Archi- tecture at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colo. Yuhung Lin was a graduate student at the university when the research took place. Figure 1 (left). Relationship between shoot sodium (Na) concentration and turf quality under three irrigation regimens: surface water, 10 years of effluent water, and 18 to 26 years of effluent water. Figure 2 (right). Relationship between soil sodium adsorption ratio (at 0- to 20-centimeter [0- to 8-inch] depth) and shoot sodium (Na) concentration of Kentucky bluegrass under three different irrigation regimens: surface water, 10 years of effluent water, and 18 to 26 years of effluent water. Parameter † Surface water Effluent water irrigation (10 years) Effluent water irrigation (18-26 years) Turf quality 8.2 a ‡ 7.8 a 7.1 b Sodium (Na) 329 c 1,427 b 3,256 a Calcium (Ca) 3,856 b 3,426 b 5,159 a Magnesium (Mg) 1,874 b 2,725 a 1,780 b Potassium (K) 20,637 a 22,642 a 17,372 b Chloride 5,027 b 7,545 a 6,734 a Boron (B) 5.9 b 7.7 b 20.8 a Phosphorus (P) 4,513 3,864 4,517 Potassium/Sodium (K/Na) 64.3 a 16.6 b 6.3 c Sulfur (S) 1,996 b 1,285 c 4,517 a Iron (Fe) 282.4 a 105.4 b 270.8 a Zinc (Zn) 35.99 a 25.29 b 36.31 a Manganese (Mn) 51.8 b 33.5 b 104.6 a Soil electrical conductivity (EC) 1.0 b 1.2 b 2.4 a Soil sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) 1.1 c 3.5 b 9.4 a † Units are milligrams/kilogram except for turf quality (1-9 scale, 9 = best), the potassium/sodium (K/Na) ratio, soil EC (deciSiemens/meter), and soil sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) ‡ Means within a row that are followed by the same letter are not significantly different. No letters follow the phosphorus values because the values are not significantly different. Table 1. Mean separation of turf quality, soil electrical conductivity (EC), soil sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and shoot mineral concentration of Kentucky bluegrass grown on golf course roughs under different years of irrigation with effluent water. 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Surface water irrigation 10-year effluent water irrigation 18- to 26-year effluent water irrigation Turf quality (1-9 scale) Na + concentration in turf shoot (milligrams/kilogram) Surface water irrigation 10-year effluent water irrigation 18- to 26-year effluent water irrigation Na + concentration in turf shoot (milligrams/kilogram) Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) at 0- to 20-centimeter depth Number of years of effluent water irrigation affect turf quality, soil EC, soil SAR and shoot mineral concentration of Kentucky bluegrass

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