Golf Course Management

APR 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 90 of 165

04.19 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 79 • Alternative plant species that perform well under ultra-low-input management can help conserve resources. • In California, we examined low-mainte- nance grasses for grass density, height and NDVI measurements. • In Arizona, grasses were examined for uniformity, coverage and greenness. • Uniform irrigation was required to obtain even seed establishment and full plot area coverage. • Superintendents should consider how stand height and plant density can impact playability. The RESEARCH SAYS ized plant species as drought-tolerant plants; however, superintendents should be aware that consistent irrigation is necessary for suc - cessful establishment. Previous research has demonstrated lack of water is often a cause of seedling mortality in native and naturalized plants (5). In terms of stand height, super - intendents should consider how vegetation can impact playability. For example, in play - able areas, higher stand height can obstruct visibility of golf balls, and plant density can hinder the ability to find golf balls and, thus, affect pace of play (1, 2). Continued research replicated over loca - tions and seasons is needed to obtain more reliable information about each species' de - sirable growth characteristics, required in- puts and integrated pest management re- quirements. Funding California research was funded by the United States Golf Association. Arizona re - search was funded by the United States Golf Association, United States Department of Agriculture Specialty Crop Block Grant and the Horticultural Research Institute. Literature cited 1. Doak, T. 1992. The Anatomy of a Golf Course. Bur- ford Books, Short Hills, N.J. USGA Green Section research committee members view research plots at Camelback Golf Club in Scottsdale, Ariz. Photo by Worku Burayu 2. Jackson, D.B., S.D. Kelly and R.D. Brown. 2011. Design guidelines for integrating amphibian habitat into golf course landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 103:156-165. 3. McCarty, L.B, J.W. Everest, D.W. Hall, T.R. Murphy and F. Yelverton. 2001. Color Atlas of Turfgrass Weeds. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, Mich. 4. Moeller, A. 2013. Irrigate for playability and turf health, not color. USGA Green Section Record 51:1-6. 5. Moles, A.T., and M. Westoby. 2004. What do seedlings die from and what are the implications for evolution of seed size? Oikos 106:193-199. Maggie Reiter ( is an area environ - mental horticulture advisor for University of California Cooperative Extension based in Central California. Kai Umeda is a turfgrass extension agent, and Worku Burayu is a research specialist with University of Arizona's Mari - copa County Cooperative Extension office in Phoenix.

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