Golf Course Management

APR 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 86 of 165

04.19 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 75 Common name Scientific name and cultivar (if known) Warm- or cool-season Locations established Seeding rate (kilograms/ hectare) Spike bentgrass Agrostis exarata cool-season California 0.32 Dune bentgrass Agrostis pallens, Camp Pendleton cool-season California 0.43 Purple threeawn Aristida purpurea warm-season California 5.2 Sideoats grama Bouteloua curtipendula warm-season California 8.05 Buffalograss Bouteloua dactyloides warm-season Arizona 244 Buffalograss Bouteloua dactyloides, SWI 2000 warm-season California 52.08 Blue grama Bouteloua gracilis warm-season Arizona 4.48 Blue grama Bouteloua gracilis warm-season California 2.55 California brome Bromus carinatus cool-season California 17.58 Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon, blend of Princess and Arden 15 warm-season California 2.6 Tufted hairgrass Deschampsia cespitosa cool-season California 1.1 Weeping lovegrass Eragrostis curvula warm-season California 1.04 Plains lovegrass Eragrostis intermedia warm-season Arizona 1.12 Teff Eragrostis tef warm-season Arizona 5.6 Hard fescue Festuca longifolia, Predator cool-season California 2.56 Sheep fescue Festuca ovina, Bighorn cool-season California 4.54 Molate fescue Festuca rubra, Molate cool-season California 4.79 Chewings fescue Festuca rubra ssp. commutata, Heathland cool-season California 3.77 Big galleta Hilaria rigida warm-season Arizona 195 Big galleta Hilaria rigida warm-season California 30.63 Prairie junegrass Koeleria macrantha cool-season California 1.2 Kurapia Lippia nodifora broadleaf Arizona 17,628 (plugs/hectare) Alkali muhly Muhlenbergia asperifolia warm-season Arizona 1.35 Deer grass Muhlenbergia rigens warm-season California 1.69 Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium warm-season California 9.67 Alkali sacaton Sporobolus airoides warm-season Arizona 3.36 Alkali sacaton Sporobolus airoides warm-season California 0.87 Spike dropseed Sporobolus contractus warm-season Arizona 1.12 Sand dropseed Sporobolus cryptandrus warm-season Arizona 1.12 Purple needlegrass Stipa pulchra cool-season California 17.4 Desert zinnia Zinnia acerosa broadleaf Arizona 2.47 Table 1. Plant species tested for establishment at a reduced-input golf course rough in California and in Arizona trials. Plant species tested To help superintendents determine which alternative species perform well as reduced- input golf course rough, we undertook sepa - rate studies in California and Arizona, evalu- ating 27 plant species at five locations. Materials and methods We collected data to determine establish- ment success and suitability of these species, including metrics for green color, density, stand height, uniformity and aboveground biomass. Four of 27 plant species were tested in both California and Arizona. Table 1 pres - ents the common and scientific names, plant type, trial location and seeding rate of each species tested. California In California, three field trials, two in Parlier in Fresno County and one in San Luis Obispo, measured the performance of 10 cool-season grass species and 10 warm- season grass species. Plots were 60 square feet (5.5 square meters) and arranged in a ran - domized complete block design with four to five replications. Cool-season trials were es - tablished in fall 2017, and warm-season trials were established in summer 2018. Data were collected to measure establishment success, playability and stand health with the fol - lowing metrics: Normalized Difference Veg- etation Index (NDVI), or green reflectance; plant density counts (established plants per area); and stand height. NDVI was collected with a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor, and plant density counts were collected with two quadrats per plot. Data were collected when plots reached maximum stand height, which was six months after seeding the trials for cool-sea - son grasses and four months after seeding the trials for warm-season grasses. Arizona In Arizona, two field trials, one at Cam - elback Golf Club in Scottsdale and one at Briarwood Country Club in Sun City West, measured the performance of nine warm-sea - son grass species, a native forb and a newly introduced horticultural groundcover. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three to four replicates. e trial at Scottsdale was established in spring 2016, and the trial at Sun City West was established in summer 2017.

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