Golf Course Management

MAR 2019

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78 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 03.19 • The objective of this research was to de- termine whether aerification or vertislicing alone or in combination with topdressing or herbicide application could success- fully control silvery-thread moss in putting greens. • Both aerification and vertislicing reduced silvery-thread moss cover compared with the untreated control by the end of the study. • The herbicide carfentrazone provided the greatest moss control, but it did not eradicate it. • Light, frequent topdressing had no effect on moss cover, but it enhanced turf color and quality. The RESEARCH SAYS dressing did have enhanced turfgrass color and quality (data not shown). Conclusions Superintendents confronted with silvery- thread moss infestations should use a mul - tifaceted approach with two main goals: re- duce the size of the current infestation and prevent the future establishment of dispersed propagules. Our research demonstrates that hollow-tine aerification or vertislicing, in tan - dem with split applications of carfentrazone, effectively accomplishes these goals. Unfortu - nately, cultivation disrupts playability. ere- fore, we recommend selectively implementing cultivation in those areas where silvery-thread moss is most prevalent, if twice yearly cultiva - tion is not feasible. Greatest reductions in sil- very-thread moss cover will likely be attained by combining cultivation and carfentrazone (Figure 3), but further research is needed to determine the optimal timing and frequency. Although light, frequent topdressing did not reduce silvery-thread moss cover in our study, other research supports its inclusion as part of a comprehensive silvery-thread moss manage - ment strategy. A light, frequent topdressing program should help reduce survival of dis - persed fragments and bulbils by burying the propagules. Lastly, this research may be most ment and colonization of silvery-thread moss (Bryum argenteum Hedw.) in putting greens. Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management doi:10.2134/cftm2105.0140 11. Raudenbush, Z., S.J. Keeley and L.R. Stark. 2015. A review: establishment, dispersal, and management of silvery-thread moss (Bryum argenteum Hedw.) in put - ting greens. Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management doi:10.2134/cftm2014.0094 12. Reicher, Z., and D. Weisenberger. 2007. Herbicide selection and application timing in the fall affects control of ground ivy. Online. Applied Turfgrass Sci - ence doi:10.1094/ATS-2007-0831-01-RS 13. Selkirk, P.M., M.L. Skotnicki, J.A. Ninham, M.B. Con - nett and J. Armstrong. 1998. Genetic variation and dispersal of Bryum argenteum and Hennediella meimii populations in the Garwood Valley, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 10:423-430. 14. Senseman, S.A. 2007. Herbicide Handbook. 9th edition. Weed Science Society of America, Lawrence, Kan., Pages 197-199. 15. Thompson, C., J.D. Fry and M.M. Kennelly. 2011a. Evaluation of conventional and alternative products for silvery-thread moss control in creeping bentgrass. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science doi:10.1094/ATS- 2011-1018-01-RS 16. Thompson, C., M.M. Kennelly and J.D. Fry. 2011b. Effect of nitrogen source on silvery-thread moss on a creeping bentgrass putting green. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science doi:10.1094/ATS-2011-1018- 02-RS Zane Raudenbush ( is an assis - tant professor at Ohio State University Agricultural Tech- nical Institute, Wooster, Ohio, and Steven J. Keeley is a professor at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kan. applicable to putting greens with severe (for example, >10%) silvery-thread moss infesta - tions. It is unclear if very small infestations (for example, 1% or less) would respond to cultivation in the same manner. Investigating such a scenario could be the subject of future research. Acknowledgments We thank the Kansas Turfgrass Founda- tion for funding this research. Literature cited 1. Borst, S.M., J.S. McElroy and G.K. Breeden. 2010. Silvery-thread moss control in creeping bentgrass putting greens with mancozeb plus copper hydroxide and carfentrazone applied in conjunction with cultural practices. HortTechnology 20(3):574-578. 2. Crum, H.A., and L.E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America, 2 Vols. Columbia University Press, New York. 3. Horsley, K., L.R. Stark and N.D. McLetchie. 2011. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex- specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment? Annals of Botany 107:897-907. 4. Kennelly, M.M, T.C. Todd, D.M. Settle and J.D. Fry. 2010. Moss control on creeping bentgrass greens with standard and alternative approaches. Hort - Science 45(4): 654-659. 5. Longton, R.E. 1981. Inter-population variation in morphology and physiology in the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. Journal of Bryology 11:501- 520. 6. Lyons, E.M, K.S. Jordan, I.T. James, D.M. Hudner and D. McGowan. 2012. Irrigation frequency influ - ences the establishment of silvery thread moss (Bryum argenteum Hedw.) and rooting of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) on simulated golf greens. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B: Soil & Plant Science (Supplement 1) 62:79-85. 7. Post, A.R., D.S. McCall and S.D. Askew. 2016. Preemergence control of silvery thread moss (Bryum argenteum ) grown from spores and bulbils in axenic culture. Weed Technology 30(1):198-206. 8. Raudenbush, Z. 2015. Cultural and chemical control of silvery-thread moss in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Ph.D. dissertation. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan. 9. Raudenbush, Z., and S.J. Keeley. 2014. Springtime dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ) control with seven postemergence herbicides applied at three anthesis stages. HortScience 49(9):1212-1216. 10. Raudenbush, Z., and S.J. Keeley. 2015. Effect of nitrogen source and spray volume on the establish -

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