Golf Course Management

MAR 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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74 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 03.19 moss infestation. e green had a sand-based root zone with a soil pH of 8.0. e area was walk-mowed six days per week from March to November using a Toro Greensmaster Flex 21 (e Toro Co.) at a bench cutting height of 0.118-inch (3.0 mm). Irrigation was hand- applied to ensure even distribution and typi - cally applied every one to two days from May to September as needed to prevent creeping bentgrass wilt. Plots were fertilized from April to October and received a total of 3.5 pounds nitrogen/1,000 square feet (170.9 kg/hectare). An 18-9-18 granular fertilizer (Contec DG, e Andersons) was applied at 0.75 pound ni - trogen/1,000 square feet (36.6 kg/hectare) in the spring and fall when cultivation treatments were administered. Additionally, foliar ap - plications of urea (UFlexx, Koch Agronomic Services [0.2 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet; 9.8 kg/hectare]) and liquid 0-2-2 (Em - erald Isle PanaSea Plus, LebanonTurf [0.004 pound potassium/1,000 square feet; 0.195 kg/ hectare])were applied every two weeks from May to September. A randomized complete-block design using three blocks and a split-plot treatment structure was used to evaluate the effects of three main treatments: topdressing (two lev - els), herbicide (two levels) and cultivation (four levels). Treatments were applied to the same plots in both study years to evaluate the cumu - lative effect over time on silvery-thread moss cover. Whole plots measured 12 feet (3.65 me - ters) × 12 feet and received either infrequent or frequent topdressing applications. e in - frequent topdressing treatment consisted of 4.28 cubic yards/acre (8 cubic meters/hectare) of sand applied directly after cultivation treat - ments, and the frequent treatment consisted of 4.28 yards/acre of sand applied directly after cultivation treatments + 2.14 yards/acre (4 cubic meters/hectare) of sand applied every two weeks from May to September in 2013 and 2014. Sand was applied using a handheld shaker jar. e 3-foot × 4-foot (0.9-meter × 1.2-meter) subplots contained four cultivation treatments treated with or without herbicide. Cultivation treatments were applied in the fall and spring of each study year on Oct. 1, 2012; March 29, 2013; Oct. 8, 2013; and April 7, 2014. e four cultivation treatments were: 1) 0.5-inch diameter hollow-tine aerification at low intensity (3.9% surface disruption); 2) 0.5-inch (1.27 cm) diameter hollow-tine aeri - fication at high intensity (7.2% surface dis- ruption); 3) vertislicing; and 4) no cultivation. The plots on the left were treated with frequent topdressing, and those on the right received infrequent topdressing treat- ments. Topdressing was thought to suppress growth of silvery-thread moss and give creeping bentgrass an advantage in colonizing available sites. The authors hypothesized that cultivation in the form of hollow-tine aerification or vertislicing (both shown here), along with applications of a herbicide or topdressing, would increase the ability of creeping bentgrass to recolonize clumps of silvery-thread moss.

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