Golf Course Management

FEB 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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82 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 02.19 CUTTING EDGE Teresa Carson Establishing creeping bentgrass in a putting green e objective of this study was to assess the impact of cultivation method, seeding rate and nitrogen rate on creeping bentgrass establishment during putting green renova - tion. Two field experiments were conducted on a 20-year-old sand-based putting green at the Joseph Valentine Turfgrass Research Cen - ter in University Park, Pa., in August 2017 and 2018. Cultivation treatments included 13 mm hollow tines + slicing, 6 mm hollow tines + slicing, slicing only, dimpling via the Job Saver attachment, and no cultivation. Seeding rate treatments included 33 or 65.1 pounds seed/ acre, using a mixture of Penn A-1 and Penn A-4 creeping bentgrass seed. Nitrogen rate treatments were 21.4, 42.8 or 64.2 pounds nitrogen/acre; 21.4 pounds nitrogen/acre was applied at seeding and every 14 days after seed - ing until total amounts were applied for each treatment. Seedling vigor was assessed twice per week for the first two weeks, and percent ground cover was determined biweekly from Sept. 13 to Nov. 13, 2017. On all rating dates, the highest rate of seed and nitrogen provided the highest seedling vigor and percent cover. On all rating dates, slicing alone was equal to or greater than both treatments involving hollow-tine aeration + slicing. e Job Saver treatment increased bentgrass cover compared to the control, and by the end of the experi - ment was equal to slicing alone and hollow- tine aeration + slicing treatments. Results of this study indicate that slicing alone is an ef - fective cultivation method for establishing creeping bentgrass in putting greens and may reduce costs associated with core aeration. — Devon Carroll, John E. Kaminski, Ph.D. (jek156@, and Peter J. Landschoot, Ph.D., Pennsyl - vania State University, University Park, Pa. This research was funded in part by a grant to GCSAA from the Environmental Institute for Golf. Irrigation water as a source of Pythium inoculum Creeping bentgrass, which is often used on putting greens in the U.S. transition zone, is highly susceptible to diseases such as Pythium blight, root rot and root dysfunction that lower the aesthetic quality of turf and create uneven surfaces that disrupt ball roll. Patho - genic Pythium species are known to dissemi- nate through irrigation systems in agricultural and greenhouse settings, but it is unknown if golf course irrigation may serve as a similar in - oculum source. Water samples (1.5 liters) were collected from irrigation heads and retention ponds to screen for the presence of pathogenic Pythium species. Zoospores were baited from a 500-milliliter aliquot using sterile creep - ing bentgrass leaves. Subsequently colonized leaves were cut in half and plated on media for isolation or used directly for DNA extrac - tion. e remaining liter was split in half and filtered using two Durapore filters. One filter was plated onto a Pythium-specific culture me - dium, and the other was used for direct DNA extraction. Mycelial colonies grown from bentgrass leaves and filters were transferred to fresh media to propagate biomass for DNA ex - traction. Pythium was detected in seven of 11 irrigation sources sampled, and five locations produced samples containing two or more species. Six Pythium species have thus far been identified using these methods. One of these species, P. vanterpoolii, is aggressive and a known causal agent of Pythium root rot. Irri - gation water may serve as a source of Pythium inoculum, and management strategies aimed toward reducing this inoculum may aid in dis - ease control. — Clayton A. Rushford and Gerald L. Miller, Ph.D. (, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. Editor's note: Earlier versions of these summaries were published in the 2018 ASA-CSSA Meeting Abstracts, ASA and CSSA, Madison, Wis. Teresa Carson ( is GCM 's science editor. Photo by Devon Carroll Photo by Gerald L. Miller

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