Golf Course Management

FEB 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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78 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 02.19 Literature cited 1. Fletcher, C.S., and D.A. Westcott. 2013. Dispersal and the design of effective management strategies for plant invasions: matching scales for success. Eco - logical Applications 23:1881-1892. 2. Glime, J.M. 2017. Adaptive Strategies: Vegetative Propagules. Chapters 4-10. In : J.M. Glime. Bryophyte Ecology. Volume 1. Physiological Ecology. Ebook sponsored by Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists. https:// 3. Grime, J.P. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to eco - logical and evolutionary theory. American Naturalist 111:1169-1194. 4. Horsley, K., L.R. Stark and D.N. McLetchie. 2011. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex- specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment? Annals of Botany 107:897-907. 5. MacArthur, R.H., and E.O. Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 6. Miles, C.J., and R.E. Longton. 1992. Deposition of moss spores in relation to distance from parent gametophytes. Journal of Bryology 17:355-368. 7. Pianka, E.R. 1970. On r- and K-selection. American Naturalist 104:592-597. 8. Proctor, M.C.F., M.J. Oliver, A.J. Wood, P. Alpert, L.R. Stark, N.L. Cleavitt and B.D. Mishler. 2007. Desiccation-tolerance in bryophytes: a review. The Bryologist 110:595-621. 9. Raudenbush, Z. 2015. Cultural and chemical control of silvery-thread moss in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Ph.D. dissertation. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan. 10. Raudenbush, Z., and S. Keeley. 2015. Effect of nitrogen source and spray volume on the establish - ment and colonization of silvery-thread moss (Bryum argenteum Hedw.) in putting greens. Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management doi: 10.2134/cftm2015.0145 11. Raudenbush, Z., and S.J. Keeley. 2017. Cultivation reduces infestation of silvery-thread moss in a creep - ing bentgrass putting green. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 13:686-691. 12. Raudenbush, Z., S.J. Keeley and L.R. Stark. 2015. A review: establishment, dispersal, and management of silvery-thread moss (Bryum argenteum Hedw.) in put - ting greens. Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management May 2015. doi: 10.2134/cftm2014.0094 13. Senseman, S.A. 2007. Herbicide Handbook. 9th edition. Weed Science Society of America, Lawrence, Kan. 14. Stark, L.R., D.N. McLetchie and S.M. Eppley. 2010. Sex ratios and the shy male hypothesis in the moss Bryum argenteum (Bryaceae). The Bryologist 113:788-797 15. Thompson, C., M.M. Kennelly and J. Fry. 2011. Effect of nitrogen source on silvery-thread moss on a creeping bentgrass putting green. Applied Turfgrass Science doi: 10.1094/ATS-2011-1018-02-RS Zane Raudenbush ( is an assis - tant professor at Ohio State University Agricultural Techni- cal Institute, Wooster, Ohio, and Lloyd R. Stark is a profes- sor in the School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. • Analysis of collections of silvery-thread moss from putting greens and native areas in several states in the U.S. and one location in Canada showed that the genotype of moss from putting greens differs from that of moss in native areas. • Putting green genotypes appear to have been selected to be specialized on greens, differing markedly in their repro- ductive strategy from native genotypes and thriving in disturbed habitats. • Dislodged shoot fragments serve as the primary dispersal mechanism for silvery- thread moss. • A number of cultural practices can be used to control silvery-thread moss in putting greens. The RESEARCH SAYS

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