Golf Course Management

JAN 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

Issue link: http://gcmdigital.gcsaa.org/i/1066346

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01.19 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 113 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 UTC Bifenthrin Chlorpyrifos Indoxacarb Spinosad UTC Chlorantraniliprole Cyantraniliprole Clothianidin Chlorantraniliprole Cyantraniliprole Clothianidin Indoxacarb Spinosad Trichlorfon % control % control % control % control 2x resistance 2x resistance 31x resistance 31x resistance 95x resistance 95x resistance 343x resistance 343x resistance A. Populations HP, PB C. Population GB E. Population EW G. Population LI H. Population LI F. Population EW D. Population GB B. Populations HP, PB b aA aA aA aA b aA aA aA aA a aA aA aB aAB a aB aA aB aB b bB aA bB bB aA bA bB aA bB e deB deB cdAB dA abA bcA dB e cdA aA bcdA a-dA abA dA abA aA abcA f cdA abA deA cdeA eA bcA cdA cdA Adulticides Early larvicides Late larvicides aA aA abA Figure 1. Effect of pyrethroid-resistance level of annual bluegrass weevil populations on percentage control (mean ± SEM [standard error of the mean]) of developmental stages with standard field rates of different insecticides (see Table 2) in naturally infested small plots on golf course fairways in spring. Resistance levels of populations were based on bifenthrin resistance rates (RR 50 s) of 2 (A, B; susceptible populations HP, PB); 31 (C, D; moderately resistant population GB); 95 (E, F; resistant population EW); and 343 (G, H; highly resistant population LI). Insecticides were applied as adulticides when densities of overwintered adults peaked (A, C, E, G), as early larvicides when young larval stages feeding inside the plants peaked (B, D, F, H; non-shaded bars), or as late larvicides targeting midsize larvae outside the plants (B, D, F, H; shaded bars). Treatments were evaluated in early June at least 13 days after the last treatment application. Means with the same lowercase letter do not differ significantly among treatments within resistance level and graph; means with the same capital letter do not differ significantly among resistance levels for a given treatment (that is, combination of active ingredient and application time). UTC, untreated control. Insecticides vs. seven ABW populations

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